万能英语范文20篇 投稿:阎澠澡

博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 (以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求:“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能(如文章…

【注音】hu bǐng chōng jī 【成语故事】曹操的孙子曹睿当上皇帝后急于找一个中书郎,让大臣卢毓推荐一个真有本事的人,并告诫他推荐人才不能只看名声,名声就像画在地上的一张饼,饥饿时不能吃。卢毓经过仔细挑选为曹睿选中中书郎。 【出处】选举莫…

播撒廉洁的种子 活动主题:廉政文化进校园 设计意图: 创设情境,创导一种新颖的廉政文化,以廉洁快车为载体,以诗 歌《廉洁的种子》为基点辐射整堂课,帮助孩子建立正确的思想认识,营造健康向上的氛围,让廉政文化从小根植于孩子们的心中。 教学目标: 1、读有…

博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》

(以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求:“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高

于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能(如文章结

构、段落展开和起承转合等),能按具体要求,在一小时内写出250词左右的短文,正确表

达思想,语意连贯,无重大语言错误。”、 1.文章内容切题。审题准确,不跑题。

2.表达清楚。语言简洁、准确、说理清楚,读者能从作文内容清楚理解作者写作意图。 3.意

义连贯。 文字连贯、层次分明、意义表达完整。要使文章意义连贯必须具有一定的技能,

包括较强的语感,遣词造句能力和文章谋篇布局的组织能力; 4.语言规范。符合

英语表达的习惯、语法错误较少、语言基本功扎实,最终避免中式英语。 14

分: 内容符合要求, 包括了标题或提纲中的全部内容;语言流畅;层次分明,句式有变化。词汇

丰富,句子结构和用词准确,文章长度符合要求。 11分:内容符合要求,包括了标

题或提纲中的全部内容;文字连贯,句式有一定变化,句子结构和用词无重大错误,文章长

度符合要求。 8分:内容符合要求,包括了标题或提纲中多数内容;基本清楚表

达的主题的内涵;句子结构和用词有少量错误,个别是大错。文章长度符合要求。 5

分: 内容基本切题,基本表达了标题或提纲中的内容;文字连贯,语言可以理解,但有较

多的结构和用词错误,且大错较多。文章长度基本符合要求。 2 分: 基本切题,

但语句支离破碎,只有少数句子可以理解。 0 分: 文不切题。只将预先背诵的

某篇文章默写下来,或语句混乱,无法理解。 附:14 分样卷 Topic: With her

entry into WTO, China is being plunged into an international competition for talents, and in

particular, for higher- level talents. To face this new challenge, China must do something, among

other things, to reform her graduate(postgraduate) education system. State your opinion aobut this

reform, and give the solid supporting details to your viewpoint. With China’s entry into WTO,

she is facing a lot of chances and challenges in many aspects. As far as talents are concerned,

China is being plunged into an international competition for talents, especially for higher-level

talents. In order to adapt this new challenge, China must do something, among other things, to

reform her graduate education system. In my opinion, we must make some reform and

adjustment in graduate education system in many aspects as follows. First of all, from the view of

the government, it must adjust its policy of using talents, especially higher-level talents. For

example, it may provide many privileges for them. Secondly, for the viewpoint of the universities,

they should adjust their constructure of curriculum. They should pay more attention to the

cultivation of graduate’s capability. They should take effective measures to direct their educational

goal from exam-oriented education to education for all-round development. Finally, as far as

personnel is concerned, a student should pay more attention to the learning of all kinds of

knowledge to meet the needs of society. In a word, it is high time that we reformed the

graduate education system. If we do not make some changes in the graduate education system, we

may be failure in the international competition. So we must reform our graduate education system.

(219 words) : 该文紧扣主题,结构严谨,内容充实,语言流畅,句式变化多样。虽有

个别小错,但英语表达能力较强,长度符合要求。 As is implied in the table (or cartoon) and well known to all of us, … Take … in the table(cartoon)

for example, it’s … for the … to… But when… On the other hand, there do exist some…

that… They are making all possible means to … and trying their best to… Compared with what

those… , It’s a pity that… And what’s more, with the deepening and furthering of our country’s

opening and reforming, more… are allowed to… With China entering the WTO, … are also

permitted to … If still blind to this, the … is sure to … So, it’s urgent and essential for … to

analyze… more rationally and macroscopically.It must keep in mind that … should never be

unheard. Although the condition is unsatisfactory now, with the awareness of the …in the

table (or cartoon) and all the society efforts, improvement and an even brighter future are not only

possible but also inevitable. 1. 不会审题,偏离主题。 2. 汉语

思维,逐字翻译。常见考生用汉语构思文章,同时将汉语句子硬译成英语。 3. 用词搭配

不当。 4. 词汇量小,表达困难,拼写错误。5. 句法逻辑关系混乱。例如:Our English class

often told stories.正确的应是: Stories are often told on our English class. 6.不会用关联

词转承上下句和段落。关联词即过渡词,使用过渡词,可使上下句子和段落合理衔接,承上

启下,使表达合乎逻辑,常见过渡词如as far as, however, well, though, in spite of 。 7. 语

法错误。 主要表现为: (1) 分不清及物与不及物动词,例如:rise, raise; hear, listen

(2) 被动语态和主动语态的误用,例如: interesting和 interested (3) 词类混淆,将动词或

形容词误用作名词,将名词或动词误用作形容词,例如: benefit 和beneficial; difficult和

difficulty; pleasure 和pleased等。 (4) 混淆可数名词和不可数名词,例如: help,practice

等。 (5) 冠词、情态动词、介词、代词等方面的错误,例如: a English book, should did,

must done 等。 文章要内容切题,表达清楚,意思连贯,语言比较规范。这就要求

考生在写作时,把握如下方面: 1. 统一性(Unity) 内容切题,实际上就是要求文章统

一性。所谓统一性,就是指短文必须围绕着主题扩展,不能多中心。统一性表现在句子、段

落和篇章三个层次上。我们写汉语文章的要求是首先不能跑题,实际上就是对统一性的要求。

2. 连贯性 (Coherence) 指句子与句子之间、段落与段落之间的衔接要自然通畅,主要体现

在文章的逻辑发展顺序和过渡词语的运用上。 1) 逻辑顺序 按照时间先后,或空间位置的

相互关系,我们可以写出眉目清晰、符合逻辑的段落或文章。叙述文体多采用时间顺序,描

写文体中空间顺序更常见。高潮形成系指按照其重要性或严重性安排各个发展点(指段落)或发展段(指文章)的顺序,这种语篇发展方法在描写、叙述、说明和议论文中均常出现。英语语篇的逻辑顺序安排一般是先谈最次要的内容,继而谈较为重要的内容,最后再谈最重

要的内容,从而形成文章高潮。 2) 过渡词语的运用—— 语篇的外在连贯手段 有时,单

靠逻辑上的连贯对英语语篇来说是很不够的,因而过渡词语的运用必不可少。汉语的连贯属

于“意合”,英语的连贯属“形合”,而借助过渡词语取得语篇的连贯是形合法最突出的特点。所以,在英语文章内,诸如等过渡词语特别多。它们的运用挑明了句子与句子之间、段落与

段落之间的关系,使文章更加显得连贯。由于受汉语“意合”的影响,中国学生常忽略过渡

词语的运用。所以中国学生在进行英语写作时必须对此给以足够的重视。3. 语言规范 语

言的规范涉及面广。小至遣词造句,大到语篇结构,无不体现语言使用的质量。根据近年博

士生入学英语考试的作文试卷统计,许多考生未熟练掌握造句技能甚至不能保证单词拼写正

确、句子无重大语法错误。因此要多读多看英语报刊和原著,从中学习语言用法,没有仔细

阅读过、理解过的东西千万不要在作文中使用,切忌中国式英语。、、 20

1. Television Program and Their Effect on children

Television programs regularly entertain, educate, effect and even frighten the majority of our

children. Most children are allowed to watch whatever program is on, with little thought on the

effect that particular show will have on a child. Most programs can be classed as beneficial or

harmful, according to what effect the program might have on a child.

The beneficial television programs are mainly thouse that educate the young. There are often

specials on animal life. A few regular children’s programs develop the child’s interest in

school-type learning by stressing numbers and the alphablt, and that encourages him or her to be

creative. The beneficial commercials, such as those on anti-smoking, anti-litter, and health, should

be included in this category.

On the opposite side are the shows, which are generally harmful to children. Many

commercials, especially those sponsoring the children’s programs, are deliberately written to

create a desire for an unnecessary product such as sugar coated cereals and candy. All adult

programs that include violence or sex scenes can at best fill a child’s mind with confusing or

misleading ideas, and could possib ly harden the child to violence.

Thoughtful parents will definitely not allow their children to view the bad programs. A

child’s viewing time should be limited to watching educationlly benefical programs.

2. How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big Cities

With the development of modern industryu, more and more people are flowing into big cities.

Accordingly, the housing problem in big cities is becoming more and more serious.

People have offered many solutions to this problem. I think building satellite cities in the

suburbs is more practical. The fresh air and beautiful secnery in the suburbs will be appealing to

the city citizens, who suffer from air pollution, noises, etc. in the overcrowded city. With more

people leaving the city, more space will be available for those remaining. The housinmg problem

in big cities will thus be solved.

3. “The younger generaton knows best”

Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comments is

made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer than ti is today.

Theyoung are better educated. They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom.

They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. They think more for

themselves and do not blindly accept the ideas of their elders. Events, which the older generation

remembers vividly, are nothing more than past history. This is as it should be. Every new

generation is different from the one preceded it. Today the difference is very marked indeed.

The old always assume thaty they know best for the simple reason that they have been around

a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this

precisely what the young are doing. They are questioning the assumptions of their elders and

disturbing their complacency. They take leave to doubt that the older generation has created the

best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than anything is conformity. Office hours, for

instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Wouldn’t people work best if they were given

complete freedom and responsibility? And what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the

world should wear drab grey suits and convict haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious

matters, who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by

violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics

or by violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional

politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used violence to solven their

problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives, so obsessed with

mean ambitions and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be

right with the rat —race? Haven’t the old lost touch with all that is important in life?

There are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. Their record over the past

forty years or so hasn’t been exactly spotless. Traditionally, the young have turned to their elders

for guilance. Today, the situation might reversed. The old—if they are prepared to admit it —

could learn a thing or two from their children. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that

enjoyment is not ―sinful‖. Enjoyment is a principle one could apply to all aspects of life. It is

surely not wrong to enjoy your work and enjoy your leisure to shed restricting inhibitions. It is

surely not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past or future. This emphasis on the

present is only to be expressed because the young have grown up under the shadow of the bomb:

the constant threat of complete annihilation. This is their glorious heritage. Can we be surprised

that they should so often question the sanity of the generation that bequeathed it ?

4. Public Transportation

As part of domestic modernization, public transportation needs to be developed urgently in

China. I can illustrate some examples.

There does not only exist serious traffic jams but also crowded buses, underground and

railways. Commuters find it hard to get to work on time due to overcrowded buses or tubes.

Travelers could hardly get on buses in big cities during weedends owing to fewer buses and more

people. When Spring Festival is drawing near, there is much greater –ressure on public

transportation since it has to deal with a large number of travelers rushing home. And travelers

needspecial arrangements to go home. In a word, public transportation has become bottleneck to

the advanc of Chinese economy.

To solve the above-mentioned problems, the departments concerned should carry out the

following steps: to build more roads, highways or railways and to add buses or trains to the

original lines. But ther funds have to be raised both from the government and the public.

There are three sources for fund raising. One is to raise the fares for all kinds of all

transportation vehicles. Another is to increase the prices for various vehicles on sale. The third is

to raise the prices of petrol and diesel oil in addtion to the governmental funds. If all this money to

raise the prices of petrol and diesel oiil in addtion to the governmental funds. If all this money

collected is used to improve transportation services, the situation will be bettered and favorable.

The third step to take is to introduce new technology in order to raise the efficiency of

vehicles. For instance, the speed of trains can be increased as much as two times so that two times

as many people can be held. In this way, the pressure on public transportation can be dramatically

alleviated. So in a word, we need to introduce new technology to raise the speed of vehicles while

having built even wider roads and added more efficient trains and huses.

5. Human Education

The other day, a professor from Peking University gave a lecture ―Chinese Intellectuals and

Written Cultural Text‖. In his lecture, he held that Chinese intellectuals have lost the written

cultural text since the May 4th movement. His opinion set us thinking that the loss of traditional

humane education resulted in a crisis of cultural education.

With the rapid development of economy, the living standard of the Chinese people has

improved a lot in terms of material wealth. In a period when economics take priority, people pay

more aned more attention to profit. At present, moneymaking and pleasure seeking are becoming a

popular fashion. On the other hand, there appears a barren field of spirit in today’s society. It has

become unexpectedly hard to rebuild the paradise of traditional culture.Ideological confusion,

moral decline and a chaotic cultural market, all this shows that it is the high time to have

something done in order to tackle the problem of cultural orientation. Our times call for an ideal

humane education.

It is unwise to discard traditional Chinese culture as a whole. Some of the elements of this

culture can be made use of in the reconstruction of our spiritual civilizaiton directly or wit5h some

adaptation. Our attitude towards tradition should be ―discarding the dross and selecting the

essence‖. The humane education of the past can serve as a supplement to our Marxist education. It

should start from primary school. In this way, our children will get educated so as to be possessed

of a perfect personality. The national morale will be deeply rooted in people’s mind, and will help

push forward the growth of economy.

To sum up, we can find it badly necessary to build up an ideal humane education. We should

find an efficient way to develop our humane education and dig out5 more resources form

traditional Chinese culture.

6. Criticism on Television

A lot of people believe that television has a harmful effect on chldren. A few years ago, the

same criticisms were made of the cinema. But although child psychoilogists have spent a great

deal of time studying his problem, there is not much evidence that television brings about

teenager’s crimes.

For people in the modern worlds share the views of parents a hundred years ago. In those

days, writers for children carefully avoided any reference to sex in their books, but had not

inhibitions about including scenes of violence.

The evidence collected suggests, however, that neither the subject, nor the action in itself

frightens children. The context in which cruely or violence occurs is much more important.

A good guide to what is psychologically healthy for a small child is therefore provided by a

television series in which a boy and a girl are supposed to be exploring distant planets with their

parents. In each story, they encounter strange monsters and find themselves in dangerous

situations but the parents are reassuring and sensible, as a child’s paprents should be in real life.

There is an adult character who is a coward and liar, but both the children are brave and , of course, every story ends happily.

In my view, children should be exposed to the problems of real life as soon as possible, but

they cannont help seeing these through news programs. When they are being entertained, the

healthiest atmosphere is one which the hero and heroine are children like themselves who behave

naturally and confidently in any situation.

7. The ony thing people are interesed in today is earing more money

Once upon a time there lived a beautiful young woman and a handsome young man. They

were very poor, but as they were deeply in love, they wanted to get married. The young people’s

parents shook their heads. ―You can’t get married yet.‖ They said. Wait till you get a good job with

good prospects. So the young people waited until they found good jobs with good prospects and

they were able to get married. They were still poor, of course, they didn’t have a house to live in or

any furniture, but that did’t matter. They young man had a good job with good prospects, so large

organizations lent him the money he needed to buy a house, some furniture, all the latest electrical

appliances and a car. The couple lived happily ever after paying off debts for the rest of their lves.

And so ends another modern romantic fable.

We live in a materialistic society and are trained from our earlist years to be acquistive. Our

possessions, yours and mine are clearly labeled from early childhood. When we grow old enough

to earn a living, it does not surpise us to discover that success is measured in terms of the money

you earn. We spend the whole of ourlives keeping up with our neighbors, the Joneses. If we buy a

new television set , Jones is bound to buy a bigger and better one. If we buy a new car, we can be

sure that Jones will go one better and get two new cars: one for his wife and one for himself. The

most amusing thing about this game is that Joneses and all the neighbors who are struggling

frantically tokeep up with them are spending borrowed money kindly provided, at a suitable rate

of interest, of course, by friendly banks, insurance companies, etc.

It is not only affluent societies that people are obsessed with the idea of making more money.

Consumer goods are desirable everywhere and modern industry deliberately sets out to create new markets. Gone are the days when industrial goods were made to last forever. The wheels of

industry must be kept turning. Built-in obsolescence provides the means; goods are made to be

discarded. Cars get tinnier and tinnier. You no sooner acquire this year’s model than you are

thinking about its replacement.

This materialistic outlook has seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people

these days acquire knowledge only for its own sake. Every course of studies must lead somewhere. i.e. to a bigger wage packet. The demand for skilled personnel for exceeds the supply and big

companies compete with each other to recruit students before they have completed their studies.

Tempting salaries and ―fringe benefits‖ are offered to them. Recruiting tactics of this kind have led

to the brain drain, the process by which highly skilled people offer their services to the highest

bidder. The wealthier nations deprive their poorer neighbors of their most able citizens. While

Mammon is worshipped as never before, the rich get richers and the poor, poorer.

8. Communication and Language

One of the first things we think about when we hear the word communication language.

There are thousands of languages spoken around the world today. In fact, linguistis say that there

may be as many as 10000.

Speaking with others is an important means of communication, but we can also communicate

without using words, that is by nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication includes

voice quality, eyes movement, facial expression and body movements such as gestures and change

in body position. But many people do not realize that everyone uses nonverbal communication.

Sometimes, we ―say‖ more with our face and gestures that we do with our voices.

Books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, are other means of communication. Today

we can also communicate over long distance with the help of communications satellites. Some

scientists say that soon machines will be developed for sending message through the earth. The

technology necessary to build these machines is very complex. But the language we speak every

day is much more complex than the most modern communication technology.

9. Cooperation Goes with Competition

In our times, cooperation and competition spread over the world. Both of them speed up the

wheel of economy and enrich the intelligence of mankind. It is possible to accomplish a

complicated program by only one person now. As we know, the more cooperation a company

depends on, the more efficient it will become in business.

Furthermore, we can’t avoid competition in our exchanges. From time to time, we compare

ourselves with others, expecting to catch up with others. This is the spirit of competition, by which

we pursue the highest goal. It is only by competition in the market that a company can raise its

reputation. Were it not for competition, say, all of us would not enjoy what we have achieved.

10. The Rise of Intellectual Property Protection

Intellectural property scarcely existed in the vocabularies of academic researchers and

administrators even 15 years ago. Now it is an ever-present part of discussions on research

policies and directions. This new importance of intellectual property in academia reflects a

changing view on ther relationships of research at universities to the surrounding society. Until

recently, research at universities has been relatively isolated from demands of economic utility,and

education of graduate students has emphasized a career in academic research as the final goal.

Now almost all research universities in the United States have technology licensing

operations. The number of U.S. patents granted to American universities in a year rose from about

300 in 1980 to almost 2000 in 1995. The direct economic impact of technology licensing on the

universities themselves has been relatively small. In contrast, the impact of university technology

transfer on the local and national economies has been substantial, and leads to the concusion that

the Licensing Act () is one of the most successful pieces of economic development in recent

history. It has been estimated that more than 200000 jobs have been created in the United States in

product development and manufacturing of products from university licenses, with the number

increasing fairly rapidly as the licenses mature.

Intellectual property terms have become vitally important. The company wants to be assured

that it can use the results of the research-and that these results will not be available to their

competitors. But most universities insist that transfer of research results is key to their identity and

mission and will not agree to keep the project results secret. The key to resolving this dilemman is

to grant patents: the university will publish the results, but will first agree to file patents that will

protect the company’s privilege in the commercial market place.

11. Generation Gap

Despite various improvements in all aspects of social life, the generation gap between the

grown-up and the young remains unbridged. Instead, it grows wider apart.

Nowadays, the youths do not blindly follow what their elder say. Owing to widespread

edcuation, the influence of western civilization, to certain extent, gives them a new code of

philosophy, which is completely different from that of their elders. An invisible cold wall thus

appears between the two generations.

Modern youths are trying to be more revolutionary. They have their own interpretation fro

different matters; they also have their own ideals. Their reluctance to learn old teaching and

sayings becomes the constant friction between the two generations. They always introduce new

changes. However, the old people, wedded to everything of the past, are hostile to changes and the

generation gap becomes wider and wider.

After all, the young generation, like the old one, is made of flesh and blood. The young also

need respect and they also have skills and good ideas. In order to narrow the gap, both groups

should try to understand each other. Most probably, these suggestions may help to solve the

problem.

12. Should Men and Women Be Equal?

Should men and women be equal? This is a question much talked about by many people.

Some hold the opinion that men are superiro to women in many ways. For one thing, many a job

men do can hardly be done by women, who are physically not strong enough; and for another,

most of the word-famous scientists or statemen are found to be males. Moreover, the whole human

society seems to have all along been dominated by men only. Isn’t it evident enough to show that

men are a lot stronger than women? Hence, the former should enjoy more rights than the latter.

Other people, however, think quite differently on this question. They firmly believe that men

and women are born equal. And women are certainly as talented as men if they are given equal

opportunities of education. Isn’t it a fact known to us all that women have been working side by

side with men in China and elsewhere in the wordl? Like their men folks, they have been

distinguishing themselves not only in research institutions, but in government bodies and other

organizations as well.

Personally, I am firmly standing on the side of those women’s rights defenders. Since men

and women are playing an equally important role in all human activities, why should not they be

on an equal footing? Furthermore, from time immemorial, there have been two sex groups, namely, men and women. Our Human society could definitely not have existed or advanced without either

of them. Is it wonder that men and women ought to be equal and enjoy equal rights accordingly?

13. Computer and Man

It is believed that the computer can do almost every thing. At the time the computer was

invented, scientists, carried away by its calculating speed, felt that they had created a miracle. It

Was gradually used not noly in mathematics,physics,chemisry and astronomy, but in places

like the library, hospital and military army to replace the work of man. For the work of man. For

this reason, the computer was entiled ―Electronic Brain‖ in terms of appreciation.

Can man be controlled by computers? The answer is negative. Although a computer works

much faster and accurately than man , a fact is undeniable; it is designed, manufactured and

programmed by man, and therefore by human beings. Of course, science fictions have made up

many fascinating stories about a computer, or rather robot,who conquers man and the earth, even

the whole universe; however, they are only unrealistic imaginatio. A horse helps man a lot runs

much faster than we, but it is only a slave.

The future for the computer is very promising. With the help of it, we can do things that could

not be done before.Conquering the universe, discovering new things, explaining mysteruiys

phenomena puzzling us at present are all made possible by computer.

14. what kind of life to live-realistic or romantic ?

There has always been an argument between the young and the old about what kind of life to

live-realistic or romantic. Young people tend to think real think that real lofe is as dramatic and

fascimating as it is in the novels and movies while more experiened adults think this naïve

daydream is certain to be broken by later experiences and everyone should learn to get used to the

dull routine of his everydy life.

However, there are some inadequacies in the opinions on the part of both sides. Life will be

unimaginable if everything we do is only for realistic purpose, and the same is true if what we do

everyday is just to enjoy ourselves. So it’s not difficult for us to see that neither way can ensure a

happy life.

In my opinion, a real happy lofe can never be separated from either of the two ways. On the

one hand, let’s enjoy life-enjoy the excitement of sports. On the other, let’s not forget our work.

Happy life can never go without hard work.

15. Fast Food

Fast food is becoming more popular in China, especially among children and teenagers.

Today, it's certainly difficult to think of any other single thing that represents the fast pace of

modern society as powerfully as fast food.

There are several reasons for its popularity. First, it is very convenient and saves a lot of time.

The trends of modern society seem to all point to one ultimate goal--saving time, and fast food

well serves this purpose. You just go into a fast food restaurant, order your food, and your food is

ready in no time. You can either eat it there or take it away. Second, its popularity is also attributed

to the clean and comfortable environment of fast food restaurants, the excellent ervice, and the

guaranteed quality of food.

However, in terms of nutrition, fast food is far from satisfactory. It usually does not compose a balanced diet and is low in nutritional value. Thus, doctors suggest that people, especially children, eat fast food as little as possible. Although cooking at home is time-consuming and the following washing-up tiresome, it offers healthy and delicious meals your body likes and needs. Fast food is only a good choice when you are in a hurry and turn to it once in a while.

16. On the Attitude towards Fighting against Criminals

Today crime rate in our cities seems to be rising. Thefts, robberies, and murders are reported to take place even in the broad daylight.

Facing crime tide, people may take different attitudes. Some feel frightened and prefer to turn a blind eye to the criminals. Others are resolute and dare to run risk at the cost of their lives in fighting with thecriminals. They take it as their duty to protect the social law and order. As for me, I take the attitude of the latter.

To ensure the social security and protect people’s safety, I may have some suggestions to make. First of all, the government should always keep a continuous law education among the people, especially, in the younger generations. Secondly, criminals should be punished severely. And finally, it is imperative to set up a public foundation system to award those who set merits in fighting criminals.

17. Parents are too permissive with their children nowadays

Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to children,but if you were a parent in those days, at least you knew where you stood: children were to be seen and not heard. Freud and company did away eith all that and patents have been bewildered ever since.The child’s happiness is all-important, the psychologist say, but what about the parents’ happiness?Parents suffer constantlu from fesar and guilt while their children gaily romp about pulling the place apsrt. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question: no modern childrearing manual would permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not allowed even to shout. Who knows what deep psychological wounds you might inflict? The poor child may never recover from the dreadful traumatic experience. So it is that parents bend over backwards to avoid giving theie children complexes which a hundred years ago hadn’t evern been heard of. Certainlu a child needs love, and a lot of it. But the excessive permissiveness of modern parents is surely doing more harm than good.

Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents’ confidence in their own authority. And it hasn’t taken children long to get wind of the fact. In addition to the great modern classic on chidcare, there countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much un solicited advice flying about, mum and dad just don’t know what to do any more. In the end, they do nothing at all. So, from ear;y childhood, the kids are in charge and parents’ lives are regulates according to the needs of their offspring. When the little dears develop into teenagers, they take complete control. Lax authority over the years makes adolescent rebellion against parents all the more violent. If the young people are going to have a party, for instance, parents are asked to leave the house. Their presence merely spoils the fun, what else can the poor parents do but obey?

Children are hardly creatures(far hardier than the psychologists would have us believe) and most of them survive the harmful influence of extreme permissiveness htat is the normal condition in the modern household. But a great many do not. The spread of juvenile delinquency in our won age is largely due to parental laxity. Mother, believing that little Johny cvan look after himself, is not at home when he returns from school; so little Johnny roams the streets. The dividing –line

between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed.

The psychologists have much to answer for. They should keep their moths shut and let parents get on with the job. And if children are knocked about a little bit in the process, it may not really matter too much. At least this will help them to develop vigorous views of their own and give them something po9sitive to react against. Perhaps there’s some truth in the idea that children who’shad a surfeit of happiness in their childhood emerge like stodgy puddings and fail to make a success of life.

18. Adveriser Perform A Useful Service to The Community

Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why thery’re always coming in for criticism. Their critics smm to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. ―It’s iniquitous,‖ they say, ―that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that ) should be absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show much profit the big companies are making. Why don’t they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it’s the consumer who pays.‖

The poor old consumer! He’d have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn’t create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding perfromance, price, etc., from an advertisement.

Lots of people pretend that they never read advetisments, but this claim may be seriously doubted, it is hardly possible not to read advertisments these days. And what fun they often are too ! Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway bye-laws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely-printed columns of news in your daily paper? A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily reation to calamities.

We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little fro our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmers is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price !

Another thing we mustn’t forget is the ―small ads.‖ Which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community! Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the ―hatch, match and dispatch‖ columns; but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or agony column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nautre. It’s the best advertisement for advertising there is !

19. Only Stricter Traffic Laws Can Prevent Accidents

From the health pointg of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now becured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for

the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads Men versus the motor-car! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly mutilated each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen.

It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personlity. Ther is no doubt that the motor-car ofter brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-year olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jeaslousies seem to be brought to the serface by the act of driving.

The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behavior. Everything, is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy traffic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than statistic, to be conveniently forgotten. Is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste fo human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Her are a few examples of some of the things that might be done. The driving test should be stadardized and made far more difficult than it is; all drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be made much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh, but surely nothing should be considered as too severe if it results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motorcars. 20. Population Control Progress in science and the improvement of living conditions have led to the rapid growth of world population. Modern medicine, for example, has made it possible for babies to grow up healthily and for people to live longer. With improved living conditions particularly in the countryside, people tend to have larger families. As a result, the world population has increased so rapidly that it has now exceeded 6 billion. cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads Men versus the motor-car! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly mutilated each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen. It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personlity. Ther is no doubt that the motor-car ofter brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-year olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations,

disappointments and jeaslousies seem to be brought to the serface by the act of driving. The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behavior. Everything, is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy traffic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than statistic, to be conveniently forgotten. Is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste fo human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Her are a few examples of some of the things that might be done. The driving test should be stadardized and made far more difficult than it is; all drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be made much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh, but surely nothing should be considered as too severe if it results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motorcars.

20. Population Control

Progress in science and the improvement of living conditions have led to the rapid growth of world population. Modern medicine, for example, has made it possible for babies to grow up healthily and for people to live longer. With improved living conditions particularly in the countryside, people tend to have larger families. As a result, the world population has increased so rapidly that it has now exceeded 6 billion.

But the overgrowth of population presents a threat to the existence of food supplies and shelter space. However, the limited productivity and scarce world resources can hardly meet the needs of the ever-increasing population. Thus, in the long run, the overgrowth of the world population will only harm mankind.

To guarantee the steady development of human society, mankind must realize the consequences resulting from a fast population growth and carry out a family planning program. Only by adopting effective meausres, can human society develop steadily and have a bright future。

博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 (以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求:“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能(如文章…

博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 (以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求:“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能(如文章…

博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 (以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求:“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能(如文章…

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