博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 （以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求：“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能（如文章…
【注音】hu bǐng chōng jī 【成语故事】曹操的孙子曹睿当上皇帝后急于找一个中书郎，让大臣卢毓推荐一个真有本事的人，并告诫他推荐人才不能只看名声，名声就像画在地上的一张饼，饥饿时不能吃。卢毓经过仔细挑选为曹睿选中中书郎。 【出处】选举莫…
播撒廉洁的种子 活动主题：廉政文化进校园 设计意图： 创设情境，创导一种新颖的廉政文化，以廉洁快车为载体，以诗 歌《廉洁的种子》为基点辐射整堂课，帮助孩子建立正确的思想认识，营造健康向上的氛围，让廉政文化从小根植于孩子们的心中。 教学目标： 1、读有…
分: 内容符合要求, 包括了标题或提纲中的全部内容;语言流畅;层次分明,句式有变化。词汇
多的结构和用词错误，且大错较多。文章长度基本符合要求。 2 分： 基本切题，
但语句支离破碎，只有少数句子可以理解。 0 分： 文不切题。只将预先背诵的
某篇文章默写下来，或语句混乱，无法理解。 附：14 分样卷 Topic： With her
entry into WTO, China is being plunged into an international competition for talents, and in
particular, for higher- level talents. To face this new challenge, China must do something, among
other things, to reform her graduate(postgraduate) education system. State your opinion aobut this
reform, and give the solid supporting details to your viewpoint. With China’s entry into WTO,
she is facing a lot of chances and challenges in many aspects. As far as talents are concerned,
China is being plunged into an international competition for talents, especially for higher-level
talents. In order to adapt this new challenge, China must do something, among other things, to
reform her graduate education system. In my opinion, we must make some reform and
adjustment in graduate education system in many aspects as follows. First of all, from the view of
the government, it must adjust its policy of using talents, especially higher-level talents. For
example, it may provide many privileges for them. Secondly, for the viewpoint of the universities,
they should adjust their constructure of curriculum. They should pay more attention to the
cultivation of graduate’s capability. They should take effective measures to direct their educational
goal from exam-oriented education to education for all-round development. Finally, as far as
personnel is concerned, a student should pay more attention to the learning of all kinds of
knowledge to meet the needs of society. In a word, it is high time that we reformed the
graduate education system. If we do not make some changes in the graduate education system, we
may be failure in the international competition. So we must reform our graduate education system.
(219 words) ： 该文紧扣主题，结构严谨，内容充实，语言流畅，句式变化多样。虽有
个别小错，但英语表达能力较强，长度符合要求。 As is implied in the table (or cartoon) and well known to all of us, … Take … in the table(cartoon)
for example, it’s … for the … to… But when… On the other hand, there do exist some…
that… They are making all possible means to … and trying their best to… Compared with what
those… , It’s a pity that… And what’s more, with the deepening and furthering of our country’s
opening and reforming, more… are allowed to… With China entering the WTO, … are also
permitted to … If still blind to this, the … is sure to … So, it’s urgent and essential for … to
analyze… more rationally and macroscopically.It must keep in mind that … should never be
unheard. Although the condition is unsatisfactory now, with the awareness of the …in the
table (or cartoon) and all the society efforts, improvement and an even brighter future are not only
possible but also inevitable. 1． 不会审题，偏离主题。 2． 汉语
思维，逐字翻译。常见考生用汉语构思文章，同时将汉语句子硬译成英语。 3． 用词搭配
不当。 4． 词汇量小，表达困难，拼写错误。5． 句法逻辑关系混乱。例如：Our English class
often told stories.正确的应是: Stories are often told on our English class. 6．不会用关联
启下，使表达合乎逻辑，常见过渡词如as far as, however, well, though, in spite of 。 7． 语
法错误。 主要表现为： （1） 分不清及物与不及物动词，例如：rise， raise； hear, listen
（2） 被动语态和主动语态的误用,例如: interesting和 interested （3） 词类混淆,将动词或
形容词误用作名词,将名词或动词误用作形容词,例如: benefit 和beneficial; difficult和
difficulty; pleasure 和pleased等。 （4） 混淆可数名词和不可数名词，例如： help，practice
等。 （5） 冠词、情态动词、介词、代词等方面的错误，例如： a English book, should did,
must done 等。 文章要内容切题，表达清楚，意思连贯，语言比较规范。这就要求
考生在写作时，把握如下方面： 1． 统一性（Unity） 内容切题，实际上就是要求文章统
2． 连贯性 (Coherence) 指句子与句子之间、段落与段落之间的衔接要自然通畅，主要体现
在文章的逻辑发展顺序和过渡词语的运用上。 1） 逻辑顺序 按照时间先后，或空间位置的
要的内容，从而形成文章高潮。 2） 过渡词语的运用—— 语篇的外在连贯手段 有时，单
词语的运用。所以中国学生在进行英语写作时必须对此给以足够的重视。3． 语言规范 语
1. Television Program and Their Effect on children
Television programs regularly entertain, educate, effect and even frighten the majority of our
children. Most children are allowed to watch whatever program is on, with little thought on the
effect that particular show will have on a child. Most programs can be classed as beneficial or
harmful, according to what effect the program might have on a child.
The beneficial television programs are mainly thouse that educate the young. There are often
specials on animal life. A few regular children’s programs develop the child’s interest in
school-type learning by stressing numbers and the alphablt, and that encourages him or her to be
creative. The beneficial commercials, such as those on anti-smoking, anti-litter, and health, should
be included in this category.
On the opposite side are the shows, which are generally harmful to children. Many
commercials, especially those sponsoring the children’s programs, are deliberately written to
create a desire for an unnecessary product such as sugar coated cereals and candy. All adult
programs that include violence or sex scenes can at best fill a child’s mind with confusing or
misleading ideas, and could possib ly harden the child to violence.
Thoughtful parents will definitely not allow their children to view the bad programs. A
child’s viewing time should be limited to watching educationlly benefical programs.
2. How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big Cities
With the development of modern industryu, more and more people are flowing into big cities.
Accordingly, the housing problem in big cities is becoming more and more serious.
People have offered many solutions to this problem. I think building satellite cities in the
suburbs is more practical. The fresh air and beautiful secnery in the suburbs will be appealing to
the city citizens, who suffer from air pollution, noises, etc. in the overcrowded city. With more
people leaving the city, more space will be available for those remaining. The housinmg problem
in big cities will thus be solved.
3. “The younger generaton knows best”
Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comments is
made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer than ti is today.
Theyoung are better educated. They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom.
They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. They think more for
themselves and do not blindly accept the ideas of their elders. Events, which the older generation
remembers vividly, are nothing more than past history. This is as it should be. Every new
generation is different from the one preceded it. Today the difference is very marked indeed.
The old always assume thaty they know best for the simple reason that they have been around
a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this
precisely what the young are doing. They are questioning the assumptions of their elders and
disturbing their complacency. They take leave to doubt that the older generation has created the
best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than anything is conformity. Office hours, for
instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Wouldn’t people work best if they were given
complete freedom and responsibility? And what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the
world should wear drab grey suits and convict haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious
matters, who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by
violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics
or by violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional
politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used violence to solven their
problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives, so obsessed with
mean ambitions and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be
right with the rat —race? Haven’t the old lost touch with all that is important in life?
There are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. Their record over the past
forty years or so hasn’t been exactly spotless. Traditionally, the young have turned to their elders
for guilance. Today, the situation might reversed. The old—if they are prepared to admit it —
could learn a thing or two from their children. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that
enjoyment is not ―sinful‖. Enjoyment is a principle one could apply to all aspects of life. It is
surely not wrong to enjoy your work and enjoy your leisure to shed restricting inhibitions. It is
surely not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past or future. This emphasis on the
present is only to be expressed because the young have grown up under the shadow of the bomb:
the constant threat of complete annihilation. This is their glorious heritage. Can we be surprised
that they should so often question the sanity of the generation that bequeathed it ?
4. Public Transportation
As part of domestic modernization, public transportation needs to be developed urgently in
China. I can illustrate some examples.
There does not only exist serious traffic jams but also crowded buses, underground and
railways. Commuters find it hard to get to work on time due to overcrowded buses or tubes.
Travelers could hardly get on buses in big cities during weedends owing to fewer buses and more
people. When Spring Festival is drawing near, there is much greater –ressure on public
transportation since it has to deal with a large number of travelers rushing home. And travelers
needspecial arrangements to go home. In a word, public transportation has become bottleneck to
the advanc of Chinese economy.
To solve the above-mentioned problems, the departments concerned should carry out the
following steps: to build more roads, highways or railways and to add buses or trains to the
original lines. But ther funds have to be raised both from the government and the public.
There are three sources for fund raising. One is to raise the fares for all kinds of all
transportation vehicles. Another is to increase the prices for various vehicles on sale. The third is
to raise the prices of petrol and diesel oil in addtion to the governmental funds. If all this money to
raise the prices of petrol and diesel oiil in addtion to the governmental funds. If all this money
collected is used to improve transportation services, the situation will be bettered and favorable.
The third step to take is to introduce new technology in order to raise the efficiency of
vehicles. For instance, the speed of trains can be increased as much as two times so that two times
as many people can be held. In this way, the pressure on public transportation can be dramatically
alleviated. So in a word, we need to introduce new technology to raise the speed of vehicles while
having built even wider roads and added more efficient trains and huses.
5. Human Education
The other day, a professor from Peking University gave a lecture ―Chinese Intellectuals and
Written Cultural Text‖. In his lecture, he held that Chinese intellectuals have lost the written
cultural text since the May 4th movement. His opinion set us thinking that the loss of traditional
humane education resulted in a crisis of cultural education.
With the rapid development of economy, the living standard of the Chinese people has
improved a lot in terms of material wealth. In a period when economics take priority, people pay
more aned more attention to profit. At present, moneymaking and pleasure seeking are becoming a
popular fashion. On the other hand, there appears a barren field of spirit in today’s society. It has
become unexpectedly hard to rebuild the paradise of traditional culture.Ideological confusion,
moral decline and a chaotic cultural market, all this shows that it is the high time to have
something done in order to tackle the problem of cultural orientation. Our times call for an ideal
It is unwise to discard traditional Chinese culture as a whole. Some of the elements of this
culture can be made use of in the reconstruction of our spiritual civilizaiton directly or wit5h some
adaptation. Our attitude towards tradition should be ―discarding the dross and selecting the
essence‖. The humane education of the past can serve as a supplement to our Marxist education. It
should start from primary school. In this way, our children will get educated so as to be possessed
of a perfect personality. The national morale will be deeply rooted in people’s mind, and will help
push forward the growth of economy.
To sum up, we can find it badly necessary to build up an ideal humane education. We should
find an efficient way to develop our humane education and dig out5 more resources form
traditional Chinese culture.
6. Criticism on Television
A lot of people believe that television has a harmful effect on chldren. A few years ago, the
same criticisms were made of the cinema. But although child psychoilogists have spent a great
deal of time studying his problem, there is not much evidence that television brings about
For people in the modern worlds share the views of parents a hundred years ago. In those
days, writers for children carefully avoided any reference to sex in their books, but had not
inhibitions about including scenes of violence.
The evidence collected suggests, however, that neither the subject, nor the action in itself
frightens children. The context in which cruely or violence occurs is much more important.
A good guide to what is psychologically healthy for a small child is therefore provided by a
television series in which a boy and a girl are supposed to be exploring distant planets with their
parents. In each story, they encounter strange monsters and find themselves in dangerous
situations but the parents are reassuring and sensible, as a child’s paprents should be in real life.
There is an adult character who is a coward and liar, but both the children are brave and , of course, every story ends happily.
In my view, children should be exposed to the problems of real life as soon as possible, but
they cannont help seeing these through news programs. When they are being entertained, the
healthiest atmosphere is one which the hero and heroine are children like themselves who behave
naturally and confidently in any situation.
7. The ony thing people are interesed in today is earing more money
Once upon a time there lived a beautiful young woman and a handsome young man. They
were very poor, but as they were deeply in love, they wanted to get married. The young people’s
parents shook their heads. ―You can’t get married yet.‖ They said. Wait till you get a good job with
good prospects. So the young people waited until they found good jobs with good prospects and
they were able to get married. They were still poor, of course, they didn’t have a house to live in or
any furniture, but that did’t matter. They young man had a good job with good prospects, so large
organizations lent him the money he needed to buy a house, some furniture, all the latest electrical
appliances and a car. The couple lived happily ever after paying off debts for the rest of their lves.
And so ends another modern romantic fable.
We live in a materialistic society and are trained from our earlist years to be acquistive. Our
possessions, yours and mine are clearly labeled from early childhood. When we grow old enough
to earn a living, it does not surpise us to discover that success is measured in terms of the money
you earn. We spend the whole of ourlives keeping up with our neighbors, the Joneses. If we buy a
new television set , Jones is bound to buy a bigger and better one. If we buy a new car, we can be
sure that Jones will go one better and get two new cars: one for his wife and one for himself. The
most amusing thing about this game is that Joneses and all the neighbors who are struggling
frantically tokeep up with them are spending borrowed money kindly provided, at a suitable rate
of interest, of course, by friendly banks, insurance companies, etc.
It is not only affluent societies that people are obsessed with the idea of making more money.
Consumer goods are desirable everywhere and modern industry deliberately sets out to create new markets. Gone are the days when industrial goods were made to last forever. The wheels of
industry must be kept turning. Built-in obsolescence provides the means; goods are made to be
discarded. Cars get tinnier and tinnier. You no sooner acquire this year’s model than you are
thinking about its replacement.
This materialistic outlook has seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people
these days acquire knowledge only for its own sake. Every course of studies must lead somewhere. i.e. to a bigger wage packet. The demand for skilled personnel for exceeds the supply and big
companies compete with each other to recruit students before they have completed their studies.
Tempting salaries and ―fringe benefits‖ are offered to them. Recruiting tactics of this kind have led
to the brain drain, the process by which highly skilled people offer their services to the highest
bidder. The wealthier nations deprive their poorer neighbors of their most able citizens. While
Mammon is worshipped as never before, the rich get richers and the poor, poorer.
8. Communication and Language
One of the first things we think about when we hear the word communication language.
There are thousands of languages spoken around the world today. In fact, linguistis say that there
may be as many as 10000.
Speaking with others is an important means of communication, but we can also communicate
without using words, that is by nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication includes
voice quality, eyes movement, facial expression and body movements such as gestures and change
in body position. But many people do not realize that everyone uses nonverbal communication.
Sometimes, we ―say‖ more with our face and gestures that we do with our voices.
Books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, are other means of communication. Today
we can also communicate over long distance with the help of communications satellites. Some
scientists say that soon machines will be developed for sending message through the earth. The
technology necessary to build these machines is very complex. But the language we speak every
day is much more complex than the most modern communication technology.
9. Cooperation Goes with Competition
In our times, cooperation and competition spread over the world. Both of them speed up the
wheel of economy and enrich the intelligence of mankind. It is possible to accomplish a
complicated program by only one person now. As we know, the more cooperation a company
depends on, the more efficient it will become in business.
Furthermore, we can’t avoid competition in our exchanges. From time to time, we compare
ourselves with others, expecting to catch up with others. This is the spirit of competition, by which
we pursue the highest goal. It is only by competition in the market that a company can raise its
reputation. Were it not for competition, say, all of us would not enjoy what we have achieved.
10. The Rise of Intellectual Property Protection
Intellectural property scarcely existed in the vocabularies of academic researchers and
administrators even 15 years ago. Now it is an ever-present part of discussions on research
policies and directions. This new importance of intellectual property in academia reflects a
changing view on ther relationships of research at universities to the surrounding society. Until
recently, research at universities has been relatively isolated from demands of economic utility,and
education of graduate students has emphasized a career in academic research as the final goal.
Now almost all research universities in the United States have technology licensing
operations. The number of U.S. patents granted to American universities in a year rose from about
300 in 1980 to almost 2000 in 1995. The direct economic impact of technology licensing on the
universities themselves has been relatively small. In contrast, the impact of university technology
transfer on the local and national economies has been substantial, and leads to the concusion that
the Licensing Act () is one of the most successful pieces of economic development in recent
history. It has been estimated that more than 200000 jobs have been created in the United States in
product development and manufacturing of products from university licenses, with the number
increasing fairly rapidly as the licenses mature.
Intellectual property terms have become vitally important. The company wants to be assured
that it can use the results of the research-and that these results will not be available to their
competitors. But most universities insist that transfer of research results is key to their identity and
mission and will not agree to keep the project results secret. The key to resolving this dilemman is
to grant patents: the university will publish the results, but will first agree to file patents that will
protect the company’s privilege in the commercial market place.
11. Generation Gap
Despite various improvements in all aspects of social life, the generation gap between the
grown-up and the young remains unbridged. Instead, it grows wider apart.
Nowadays, the youths do not blindly follow what their elder say. Owing to widespread
edcuation, the influence of western civilization, to certain extent, gives them a new code of
philosophy, which is completely different from that of their elders. An invisible cold wall thus
appears between the two generations.
Modern youths are trying to be more revolutionary. They have their own interpretation fro
different matters; they also have their own ideals. Their reluctance to learn old teaching and
sayings becomes the constant friction between the two generations. They always introduce new
changes. However, the old people, wedded to everything of the past, are hostile to changes and the
generation gap becomes wider and wider.
After all, the young generation, like the old one, is made of flesh and blood. The young also
need respect and they also have skills and good ideas. In order to narrow the gap, both groups
should try to understand each other. Most probably, these suggestions may help to solve the
12. Should Men and Women Be Equal?
Should men and women be equal? This is a question much talked about by many people.
Some hold the opinion that men are superiro to women in many ways. For one thing, many a job
men do can hardly be done by women, who are physically not strong enough; and for another,
most of the word-famous scientists or statemen are found to be males. Moreover, the whole human
society seems to have all along been dominated by men only. Isn’t it evident enough to show that
men are a lot stronger than women? Hence, the former should enjoy more rights than the latter.
Other people, however, think quite differently on this question. They firmly believe that men
and women are born equal. And women are certainly as talented as men if they are given equal
opportunities of education. Isn’t it a fact known to us all that women have been working side by
side with men in China and elsewhere in the wordl? Like their men folks, they have been
distinguishing themselves not only in research institutions, but in government bodies and other
organizations as well.
Personally, I am firmly standing on the side of those women’s rights defenders. Since men
and women are playing an equally important role in all human activities, why should not they be
on an equal footing? Furthermore, from time immemorial, there have been two sex groups, namely, men and women. Our Human society could definitely not have existed or advanced without either
of them. Is it wonder that men and women ought to be equal and enjoy equal rights accordingly?
13. Computer and Man
It is believed that the computer can do almost every thing. At the time the computer was
invented, scientists, carried away by its calculating speed, felt that they had created a miracle. It
Was gradually used not noly in mathematics,physics,chemisry and astronomy, but in places
like the library, hospital and military army to replace the work of man. For the work of man. For
this reason, the computer was entiled ―Electronic Brain‖ in terms of appreciation.
Can man be controlled by computers? The answer is negative. Although a computer works
much faster and accurately than man , a fact is undeniable; it is designed, manufactured and
programmed by man, and therefore by human beings. Of course, science fictions have made up
many fascinating stories about a computer, or rather robot,who conquers man and the earth, even
the whole universe; however, they are only unrealistic imaginatio. A horse helps man a lot runs
much faster than we, but it is only a slave.
The future for the computer is very promising. With the help of it, we can do things that could
not be done before.Conquering the universe, discovering new things, explaining mysteruiys
phenomena puzzling us at present are all made possible by computer.
14. what kind of life to live-realistic or romantic ?
There has always been an argument between the young and the old about what kind of life to
live-realistic or romantic. Young people tend to think real think that real lofe is as dramatic and
fascimating as it is in the novels and movies while more experiened adults think this naïve
daydream is certain to be broken by later experiences and everyone should learn to get used to the
dull routine of his everydy life.
However, there are some inadequacies in the opinions on the part of both sides. Life will be
unimaginable if everything we do is only for realistic purpose, and the same is true if what we do
everyday is just to enjoy ourselves. So it’s not difficult for us to see that neither way can ensure a
In my opinion, a real happy lofe can never be separated from either of the two ways. On the
one hand, let’s enjoy life-enjoy the excitement of sports. On the other, let’s not forget our work.
Happy life can never go without hard work.
15. Fast Food
Fast food is becoming more popular in China, especially among children and teenagers.
Today, it's certainly difficult to think of any other single thing that represents the fast pace of
modern society as powerfully as fast food.
There are several reasons for its popularity. First, it is very convenient and saves a lot of time.
The trends of modern society seem to all point to one ultimate goal--saving time, and fast food
well serves this purpose. You just go into a fast food restaurant, order your food, and your food is
ready in no time. You can either eat it there or take it away. Second, its popularity is also attributed
to the clean and comfortable environment of fast food restaurants, the excellent ervice, and the
guaranteed quality of food.
However, in terms of nutrition, fast food is far from satisfactory. It usually does not compose a balanced diet and is low in nutritional value. Thus, doctors suggest that people, especially children, eat fast food as little as possible. Although cooking at home is time-consuming and the following washing-up tiresome, it offers healthy and delicious meals your body likes and needs. Fast food is only a good choice when you are in a hurry and turn to it once in a while.
16. On the Attitude towards Fighting against Criminals
Today crime rate in our cities seems to be rising. Thefts, robberies, and murders are reported to take place even in the broad daylight.
Facing crime tide, people may take different attitudes. Some feel frightened and prefer to turn a blind eye to the criminals. Others are resolute and dare to run risk at the cost of their lives in fighting with thecriminals. They take it as their duty to protect the social law and order. As for me, I take the attitude of the latter.
To ensure the social security and protect people’s safety, I may have some suggestions to make. First of all, the government should always keep a continuous law education among the people, especially, in the younger generations. Secondly, criminals should be punished severely. And finally, it is imperative to set up a public foundation system to award those who set merits in fighting criminals.
17. Parents are too permissive with their children nowadays
Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to children,but if you were a parent in those days, at least you knew where you stood: children were to be seen and not heard. Freud and company did away eith all that and patents have been bewildered ever since.The child’s happiness is all-important, the psychologist say, but what about the parents’ happiness?Parents suffer constantlu from fesar and guilt while their children gaily romp about pulling the place apsrt. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question: no modern childrearing manual would permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not allowed even to shout. Who knows what deep psychological wounds you might inflict? The poor child may never recover from the dreadful traumatic experience. So it is that parents bend over backwards to avoid giving theie children complexes which a hundred years ago hadn’t evern been heard of. Certainlu a child needs love, and a lot of it. But the excessive permissiveness of modern parents is surely doing more harm than good.
Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents’ confidence in their own authority. And it hasn’t taken children long to get wind of the fact. In addition to the great modern classic on chidcare, there countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much un solicited advice flying about, mum and dad just don’t know what to do any more. In the end, they do nothing at all. So, from ear;y childhood, the kids are in charge and parents’ lives are regulates according to the needs of their offspring. When the little dears develop into teenagers, they take complete control. Lax authority over the years makes adolescent rebellion against parents all the more violent. If the young people are going to have a party, for instance, parents are asked to leave the house. Their presence merely spoils the fun, what else can the poor parents do but obey?
Children are hardly creatures(far hardier than the psychologists would have us believe) and most of them survive the harmful influence of extreme permissiveness htat is the normal condition in the modern household. But a great many do not. The spread of juvenile delinquency in our won age is largely due to parental laxity. Mother, believing that little Johny cvan look after himself, is not at home when he returns from school; so little Johnny roams the streets. The dividing –line
between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed.
The psychologists have much to answer for. They should keep their moths shut and let parents get on with the job. And if children are knocked about a little bit in the process, it may not really matter too much. At least this will help them to develop vigorous views of their own and give them something po9sitive to react against. Perhaps there’s some truth in the idea that children who’shad a surfeit of happiness in their childhood emerge like stodgy puddings and fail to make a success of life.
18. Adveriser Perform A Useful Service to The Community
Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why thery’re always coming in for criticism. Their critics smm to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. ―It’s iniquitous,‖ they say, ―that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that ) should be absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show much profit the big companies are making. Why don’t they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it’s the consumer who pays.‖
The poor old consumer! He’d have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn’t create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding perfromance, price, etc., from an advertisement.
Lots of people pretend that they never read advetisments, but this claim may be seriously doubted, it is hardly possible not to read advertisments these days. And what fun they often are too ! Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway bye-laws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely-printed columns of news in your daily paper? A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily reation to calamities.
We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little fro our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmers is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price !
Another thing we mustn’t forget is the ―small ads.‖ Which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community! Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the ―hatch, match and dispatch‖ columns; but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or agony column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nautre. It’s the best advertisement for advertising there is !
19. Only Stricter Traffic Laws Can Prevent Accidents
From the health pointg of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now becured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for
the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads Men versus the motor-car! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly mutilated each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen.
It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personlity. Ther is no doubt that the motor-car ofter brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-year olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jeaslousies seem to be brought to the serface by the act of driving.
The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behavior. Everything, is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy traffic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than statistic, to be conveniently forgotten. Is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste fo human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Her are a few examples of some of the things that might be done. The driving test should be stadardized and made far more difficult than it is; all drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be made much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh, but surely nothing should be considered as too severe if it results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motorcars. 20. Population Control Progress in science and the improvement of living conditions have led to the rapid growth of world population. Modern medicine, for example, has made it possible for babies to grow up healthily and for people to live longer. With improved living conditions particularly in the countryside, people tend to have larger families. As a result, the world population has increased so rapidly that it has now exceeded 6 billion. cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads Men versus the motor-car! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly mutilated each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen. It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personlity. Ther is no doubt that the motor-car ofter brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-year olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations,
disappointments and jeaslousies seem to be brought to the serface by the act of driving. The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behavior. Everything, is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy traffic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than statistic, to be conveniently forgotten. Is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste fo human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Her are a few examples of some of the things that might be done. The driving test should be stadardized and made far more difficult than it is; all drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be made much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh, but surely nothing should be considered as too severe if it results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motorcars.
20. Population Control
Progress in science and the improvement of living conditions have led to the rapid growth of world population. Modern medicine, for example, has made it possible for babies to grow up healthily and for people to live longer. With improved living conditions particularly in the countryside, people tend to have larger families. As a result, the world population has increased so rapidly that it has now exceeded 6 billion.
But the overgrowth of population presents a threat to the existence of food supplies and shelter space. However, the limited productivity and scarce world resources can hardly meet the needs of the ever-increasing population. Thus, in the long run, the overgrowth of the world population will only harm mankind.
To guarantee the steady development of human society, mankind must realize the consequences resulting from a fast population growth and carry out a family planning program. Only by adopting effective meausres, can human society develop steadily and have a bright future。
博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 （以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求：“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能（如文章…
博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》 （以下简称大纲《大纲》 的要求：“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高 于硕士生的通过水平。” 《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能（如文章…