1.虽然一国政治与经济体系可能是提高经济增长率的巨大动力，其他一些因素也很重要。其中一个近来颇受重视的因素就是地理因素。While a country’s political and economic systems are probably the big engine driving its rate of economic development, other factors are also important. One that has received attention recently is geography.
2．首先，兼并重组要比绿地投资速度要快。这一点对于市场迅速扩张的现代经济社会至关重要。很多公司相信如果他们不对一些必要的目标公司进行兼并，那么他们的全球竞争对手就会这么做。其次，外国公司被兼并是因为这些公司拥有有价值的战略资产，例如品牌忠诚、客户关系、商标专利、分销系统、生产系统以及其他要素。First, mergers and acquisitions are quicker to execute than greenfield investments. This is an important consideration in the modern business world where markets evolve very rapidly. Many firms apparently believe that if they do not acquire a desirable target firm, then their global rivals will. Second, foreign firms are acquired because those firms have valuable strategic assets, such as brand loyalty, customer relationship, trademarks or patents, distribution systems, production systems, and the like. 3.要理解进口关税，最重要的是搞明白谁受益谁受损。政府会从中受益，因为关税增加了政府税收。国内生产者受益，因为关税可以通过提高进口外国商品的成本，而使本国生产商面临较少的国外竞争。消费者受损，因为他们必须要对某些进口产品支付更多。The important thing to understand about an import tariff is who suffers and who gains. The government gains, because the tariff increases government revenues. Domestic producers gain, because the tariff affords them some protection against foreign competitors by increasing the cost of imported foreign goods. Consumers lose because they must pay more for certain imports.
4.私有化被视为提高经济效率的一种途径，它可以通过给新私营企业主强大激励—更大的利润回报—去寻求提高生产率、进出新市场以及淘汰落后产能的方式。Privatization is seen as a way to stimulate gains in economic efficiency by giving new private owners a powerful incentive—the reward of greater profits—to search for increases in productivity, to enter new markets, and to exit losing ones.
5在向以市场为基础的经济体制转型的过程中，经常要经过一些阶段：放松管制、私有化以及构建可保障财产权的法律体系。The shift toward a market-based economic system often entails a number of steps: deregulation, privatization, and creation of a legal system to safeguard property rights.
6.在解释一国在特定产品生产和出口的支配地位时，波特指出国内需求和国内竞争等国家因素的重要性。Porter points out the importance of country factors such as domestic demand and domestic rivalry in explaining a nation’s dominance in the production and export of particular products.
1.Free trade：Free trade refers to a situation where a government does not attempt to influence through quotas or duties what its citizens can buy from another country, or what they can produce and sell to another country.
2.market economy ：In a pure market economy, all productive activities are privately owned, as opposed to being owned by the state. The goods and services that a country produces are not planned by anyone. Production is determined by the interaction of supply and demand and signaled to producers through the price system.
3.Comparative Advantage: a country to specialize in the production of those goods that it produces most efficiently and to buy the goods that it produces less efficiently from other countries, even if
this means buying goods from other countries that it could produce more efficiently itself.
4.Economies of scale are unit cost reductions associated with a large scale of output. 5.Intellectual property ：ideas, which are protected by patents, copyrights, and trademarks
6.Mercantilism：The main tenet of mercantilism was that it was in a country’s best interests to maintain a trade surplus, to export more than it imported.
7.command economy ：In a pure command economy, the government plans the goods and services that a country produces, the quantity in which they are produced, and the prices at which they are sold.
1.The political, economic, and legal systems of a country can have a profound impact on the level of and hence on the attractiveness of a country as a possible market or production location for a firm.
2.In a the government plans the goods and services that a country produces, the quantity in which they are produced, and the prices at which they are sold.
owned by the state. The goods and services that a country produces are not planned by anyone. computer software, a music score, or the chemical formula for a new drug.
new management practices, and new strategies. economic growth.
9.In a market economy, any individual who has an innovative idea is free to try to make money
11.David Ricardo’s theory of offers an explanation in terms of international differences in labor productivity. 12. The shift toward a often entails a number of steps: deregulation, privatization, and creation of a legal system to safeguard property rights.
heads of their organization can reduce the conflict between management and labor that we find in more class-conscious societies.
16.In his 1776 landmark book Adam Smith attacked the mercantilist assumption that trade is a zero-sum game. Smith argued that countries differ in their ability to produce goods efficiently.
17. Cooperation between management and labor can be achieved at a lower cost in a culture where an absolute advantage and then trade these for goods produced by other countries. software to automobiles and from pharmaceuticals to aerospace.
20. The theories of Smith, Ricardo, and Heckscher-Ohlin help to explain the
uses seven main instruments: tariffs, subsidies, import quotas, voluntary export restraints, local content requirements, administrative policies, and antidumping duties. of particular products not because of underlying differences in factor endowments, but because in certain industries the world market can support only a limited number of firms.
23.Subsidies take many forms, including cash grants, tax breaks, and government equity participation in domestic firms.
25. The main tenet of mercantilism was that it was in a country’s be
27The new trade theory began to emerge in the 1970s when a number of economists pointed out international trade.
refers to a situation in which a government does not attempt to restrict what its citizens can buy from or sell to another country.
29.Dumping is defined as selling goods in a foreign market at below their costs of production or as selling goods in a foreign market at below本文由第一文库网(www.wenku1.com)首发，转载请保留网址和出处！