LOI采购意向书格式 投稿:黄僢僣

LOI 采购意向书格式 LETTER OF INTENT (LOI) We,______________________, hereby that we are ready willing and able under the act of perj…

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LOI 采购意向书格式

LETTER OF INTENT (LOI)

We,______________________, hereby that we are ready willing and able under the

act of perjury to purchase the following commodity as specified below and that funding is

available.

PRODUCT:

SPECIFICATIONS:

QUANTITY:

DESTINATION PORT:

DELIVERY TERMS:

SIZE OF SHIPMENT:

PACKING:

DISCHARGE RATE IN PORT DESTINATION:

TERMS OF PAYMENT:

PERFORMANCE BOND:

BANK COORDINATES:

TARGET PRICE:

COMPANY DETAILS

索 消费维权 |

劳动合同 | 司法考试 | 公司上市

购物车

英文合同解读:语用、条款及文本范例

(Language and Usage)

章英文合同概述

ral Introduction

iew of all this,we are making a binding agreement, putting it in writing, and our leaders,our Levitepriests are affixing their seals to it.

hemiah 9:38, BIBLE NIV)

一切的事,我们立确实的约,写在册上。我们的首领,利未人,和祭司都签了名。

西米记9:38,《圣经》新国际版)

章英文合同概述

rstanding English Contracts

合同解读:语用、条款及文本范例

,古称契约(港台现仍多用此语)。“契”者即证券,证明买卖、抵押、租赁等关系的文书,如契据、房契等。古此语,如《易·系辞》就有“后时圣人易之以书契”。“约”者即共同商定的事,共同议定要遵守的条文,如和约三国演义》中就有“昔高祖约法三章,黎民皆感其德”。

早在《圣经》中就有关于上帝在西乃山与以色列人立约的记载。诺亚方舟就是借上帝与诺亚的契约而建造的。But ll I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and wives with thee.thee在古英语里表示you 的宾格形式。thou在古英语里表示you的主格形式,相当于汉语中的汝y则是thou的所有格形式。shalt为古英语用法,相当于现代英语中的shall。 (但我要与你立约,你以及你的儿儿媳,要与你一同进入方舟。)

节合同与协议(Contract and Agreement)

代英语合同中,合同一般称为contract,协议一般称为agreement。那么contract和agreement是一回事吗?它们么关系呢?《中华人民共和国民法通则》第85条规定:“合同是当事人之间设立、变更、终止民事关系的协议。”t shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship.共和国合同法》第2条规定:“合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关(Contracts referred to in this Law are agreements between equal natural persons, legal persons and o

ations for the purpose of establishing, altering and terminating mutual civil rights and obligations国法律重述合同法第二次汇编》(Restatement(Second) of Contracts, Section 1)将合同定义为:“A contract , or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives a remedy, or the performance of which the way recognizes as a duty.” (合同乃为一个允诺或一组允诺。违反此一允诺时,法律给予救济;或其允诺之履某些情况下视之为一项义务。)这一定义亦为Steven H. Gifts 所编著的Law Dictionary完全引述。但一般而言乃两个以上当事人间具有法律约束力之协议,或由一个以上当事人所为一组具有法律约束力之允诺。(A contract binding agreement between two or more parties or a set of legal binding promises made by one party G. C. Lindsay, Contract, 3rd Ed. 1992)。这一表述在L.B. Curzon编撰的Dictionary of Law中被概括为“Anding agreement creating enforceable obligations”。 Chris Turner在其编撰的Contract Law中对contrac更为具体明了。他认为“合同”就是“an agreement between two parties by which both are bound in law an therefore be enforced in a court or other equivalent forum”。(对合同方具有法律上约束力,可由法院或辖地强制执行的协议。)

lacks Law Dictionary(8th Ed.)中对contract 的定义多达8项:

)An agreement two or more parties creating obligations that are enforceable or otherwise recognizabl)The writing that set forth such an agreement;

)A promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives a remedy, or the performance of w in some way recognizes as a duty;(作者注:与《美国法律重述合同法第二次汇编》中“contract”的定义相)Broadly, any legal duty or set of duties not imposed by the law of tort; esp., a duty created by a eclaration of a court;

)The body of law dealing with agreement and exchange;

)The term of an agreement or any particular term;

)Loosely, a sale or conveyance;

)Loosely, an enforceable agreement between two or more parties to do or not to do a thing or a set o compact.

agreement,L.B. Curzon的Dictionary of Law将其定义为:“A consensus of minds, or evidence of such c

n spoken or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”(是对已做和待做的有关事宜以口头出的相同意思表示或该意思表示的证据。)

ks Law Dictionary(8th Ed.) 对agreement下了两个定义:(1)A mutual understanding between two or about their relative duties and obligations regarding past or future performances; a manifestation ssent by two or more persons. (双方或多方就过去或将来的相关职责和义务的履行而达成相互的理解;双方或一致的表现形式。)(2)The Parties actual bargain as found in their language or by implication frcumstances, including course of dealing, usage of trade and course of performance.(即当事人通过语言示而确立的实际约定,包括交易常例、贸易习惯以及履行惯例。)

ract(合同)和Agreement(协议)到底能不能相互替换呢?让我们来看看英文合同相关书籍和词典的说法。

s Turner在其编撰的Contract Law中将合同的成立表述为三个基本要素,即:(1)Agreement—based on mutuae terms, agreement exists when a valid acceptance follows a valid offer; (协议:基于要约与承诺形成对一致而存在;)(2)Consideration—given by both sides, the quid pro quo拉丁语,即 What for What, 相报酬;交换条件;对价。, and the proof that the bargain exists; (约因:双方付出的对价及对价存在的证据ntention to create legal relations—since a contract is legally enforceable, unlike mere gratuitous 设立法律关系的意愿:合同具有法律上的执行力,不同于纯粹的无偿赠与的允诺。)

也是用agreement来解释contract的,认为合同是一种符合一定条件的协议。

语法律用语中虽然多用agreement来解释contract,其实也有偶用contract解释agreement的情形,如:Agreem

2) A contract (The Law Dictionary)。我们甚至可以找到agreement和contract在同一句中交替使用的实例。如tract contains an innocent mistake, you can get out of the agreement if the mistake is important.WhaKnow About Contracts, The State Bar of California, 2nd Ed. 1984.

ks Law Dictionary(8th Ed.)对agreement和contract 的关系做出了精辟的阐述,指出“每一份合同均是一是并非每一份协议均构成一份合同”。(Every contract is an agreement, but not every agreement is a cont进一步指出:“协议一词,就口语意义而言,包括意在影响两人或者多人间相互关系而作出的任何安排,无论该等系还是其他关系。”[In its colloquial sense, the term “agreement” would include any arrangement betmore persons intended to affect their relations (whether legal or otherwise) to each other.]

所述,我们不难看出,汉语的法律用语仅用agreement解释contract,而英语的法律用语往往不很严格,多用agrcontract, 但也有用contract解释agreement的情形, 虽说大多情况contract与agreement有所区别,有时候两

同义词互换使用。可以说contract都是协议,但协议不一定就是contract。但就广义的协议和合同来讲,还是有区从成立的宗旨上看,协议十分宽泛,不囿于为了当事人间形成法律或其他关系,即便是为影响当事人的义务也未必上的合同关系,如不动产转让或动产赠与。

从内容、条款上看,合同较为具体、详尽,着眼于微观;而协议则较为原则、粗疏,致力于宏观。实践中往往合作达成协议对有关原则问题做出约定,然后在此基础上签订合同,再全面明确各项具体的细节。

从涉及范围上看,合同的标的往往比较单一集中,也很明确,通常都是一事一议,就事论事;而协议的标的往往比较型项目的协议往往包括或分解成若干个具体的合同。

从书写格式上看,合同已基本格式化了,大家可以看到许多的合同模板;而协议的格式相对灵活一些,没有什么固的协议则和合同并无分别,只是用语上和习惯上的称呼而已。

节合同的种类与名称(Categories and Titles)

英文法律文件到底是不是英文合同, 就要看它的内容是否符合合同的要求。一般而言,合同不外乎包括人、事、时要素,也就是4W1H (Who, When, Where,What, How),如果你手上的文件内容包括了这五项要素而且签署生效,该具有了合同的性质,而不论它是以何面目出现的。常见的英文合同名称可分为以下四大类:

合同、协议(Contract,Agreement)

名称直接标明Contract或Agreement是最常见的英文合同。《中华人民共和国合同法》第九章至第二十三章就合同括,它们分别是买卖合同(Sales and Purchase Contracts);供用电、水、气、热力合同(Contracts for SupplWater, Gas and Heat);赠与合同(Gift Contracts);借款合同(Loan Contracts);租赁合同(Lease Contra赁合同(LeaseFinance Contracts);承揽合同(Contracts for Work);建设工程合同(Construction Projts);运输合同(Contracts of Carriage);技术合同(Technology Contracts);保管合同(Deposit Contrac同(Warehousing Contracts);委托合同(Mandate Contracts);行纪合同(Commission Agency Contracts);Brokerage Contracts)等十五大类。

的协议有委托代理协议(Agency Agreement)、合伙协议(Partnership Agreement)、股份转让协议(Shares Puement)、保密协议(Confidentiality Agreement)、竞业禁止协议(Noncompetition Agreement)、聘用协议nt Agreement)等。

意向书(Letter of Intent)

文件名称标为“Letter of Intent”(简称LOI,通常翻译为“意向书”)、“Memorandum of Understanding”(常翻译为“谅解备忘录”),甚至只称为“Memorandum”(简称Memo,通常称之为“备忘录”)。另外,也有标为Talks”(会谈纪要)的文件。

法律文件往往是当事人双方在商洽合作中形成的,可以称之为准合同文件(quasicontract)。这些准合同文件从不是合同或者协议,但如果经当事人签订,即具有一定的法律约束力,甚至当事人会在没有形成正式的合同或协议据这些准合同文件进行实质性合作,从而赋予这些文件合同或协议的性质。由此可见,合同的效力不能被其名称所述法律文件完整明确地记载了交易的条款,且当事人依据该条款内容履行并达成交易目的,那么这些法律文件就应方达成的合同或者协议。

契约(Covenant, Indenture, Deed, Compact,Protocol)

nant主要指不动产转让的合同或证明文件。英文合同如果基于传统英美法对价的存在,也会使用这个词来表示双方。如:In consideration of mutual premises and covenants herein contained, the parties hereto agree a

nture为契约、契据,corporate indenture 则指公司发行债券的契约文件。

(契据)为签名后盖上印章的书面合约。在合同法中,对价是一个有效合约的必备元素。但若该合约以契据形式签足对价要求。

act多用于国家间的协议、协定。例如,联合国的《全球协定》(Global Compact)。

ocol通常翻译为草约或者议定书,往往也是双方会谈结果的文字依据。经双方签字后,即受其约束,对草约内容承,如果需要补充、修改、完善,双方还会签订补充的协议。如我们耳熟能详的《中国加入世界贸易组织的议定书》on the Accession of China)。

其他书函(Letter, Waiver, Guaranty, Power of Attorney)

合同有时候非常简短,形式上就像信函一样,姑且称之为书函类的英文合同,常常用“Letter”(函)、“Waiver、“Guaranty”(保证书)和“Power of Attorney”(委托书)等简单明确的字眼作为合同的名称。相对于Agretract,书函类的合同一般具有补充或附属的性质,且经常出现在Agreement或Contract的附件中。当然书函类的事人也有完全的拘束力。

撰写的方式,是针对名称为“Agreement”(狭义)或“Contract”类型的合同文件做阅读方法的说明,其原因即在的合同结构复杂而内容完整,读者若能掌握阅读此类合同的要领,阅读其他类型的英文合同时自然就驾轻就熟了。

章英文合同的特色

ures of English Contracts

follows function.

to of the Bauhaus school of architecture)

服从功能。

豪斯建筑学院校训)

章英文合同的特色

础英语相比,作为专业性极强的语言,英文合同的用语不同于日常语言,具有显著的特点。首先,句子冗长而且复找不到句号,用词偏僻,晦涩难读,不易理解。其次,英文合同中往往沿用拉丁语、法语的法律术语,像中文的文实是佶屈聱牙,令人痛苦不堪。再次,由于属于专业英语的范畴,英文合同必然涉及法律方面理解,阅读者除了语外,对于法律,尤其是英美法应具备一定的了解。毋庸多言,需要相应的专业知识,这是所有专业英语的共性。 就是Plain English CampaignPlain English Compaign系由Chrissie Maher女士于1979年在英国发起设立的民间致力于政府公文等所谓的官样文章(gobbledygook)的直白化,以便普通民众明白易懂。(直白英语运动组织)所英文合同的句子,有兴趣的读者不妨看看到底是什么意思:

he event that the Purchaser defaults in the payment of any installment of purchase price, taxes, inserest, or the annual charge described elsewhere herein, or shall default in the performance of any ogations set forth in this Contract, the Seller may: at his option: (a) Declare immediately due and pentire unpaid balance of purchase price, with accrued interest, taxes, and annual charge, and demand

ent thereof, and enforce conveyance of the land by termination of the contract or according to the tof, in which case the Purchaser shall also be liable to the Seller for reasonable attorneys fees s rendered by any attorney on behalf of the Seller, or (b) sell said land and premises or any part tublic auction, in such manner, at such time and place, upon such terms and conditions, and upon suchice as the Seller may deem best for the interest of all concerned, consisting of advertisement in a f general circulation in the county or city in which the security property is located at least once Three successive weeks or for such period as applicable law may require and, in case of default of ar, to resell with such postponement of sale or resale and upon such public notice thereof as the determine, and upon compliance by the Purchaser with the terms of sale, and upon judicial approval aequired by law, convey said land and premises in fee simple to and at the cost of the Purchaser, whobe liable to see to the application of the purchase money; and from the proceeds of the sale:FIRST, proper costs and charges, including but not limited to court costs, advertising expenses, auctioneewance, the expenses, if any required to correct any irregularity in the title, premium for Selleritors fee, attorneys fee, and all other expenses of sale occurred in and about the protection on of this contract, and all moneys advanced for taxes, assessments, insurance, and with interest throvided herein, and all taxes due upon said land and premises at time of sale, and to retain as compcommission of five percent (5%) on the amount of said sale or sales; SECOND, to pay the whole amountining unpaid of the principal of said contract, and interest thereon to date of payment, whether thel be due or not, it being understood and agreed that upon such sale before maturity of the contract thereof shall be immediately due and payable; THIRD, to pay liens of record against the security prrding to their priority of lien and to the extent that funds remaining in the hands of the Seller ar; and LAST, to pay the remainder of said proceeds, if any, to the vendor, his heirs, personals repre successors or assigns upon the delivery and surrender to the vendee of possession of the land and pss costs and excess of obtaining possession.

Plain English Campaign几十年来一直致力于各种公文的直白英语化,而反对各种官样文章(gobbledygook)。1布实施的消费者不公平术语法(Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations)也要求消费者合同的术语必的语言(plain and intelligible language)。该法还要求这些术语必须是易读的,意味着要用清晰的设计和排印

sign and typography)。类似的法律也在欧盟的国家适用。

国,纽约州率先颁行直白语言法要求消费者合同(包括房屋租赁合同)的语言“clear and coherent”,其他各州的法律,如宾夕法尼亚州就要求消费者合同“shall be written and organized and designated so that they aread and understand”。

如此,Law Dictionary的作者Steven H. Gifts先生在该词典的前言还是感叹道:“...the special language ofains a barrier to nonlawyers. To the extent that this promotes the economic health of the profession its aura, and prevent unauthorized practice of the law, it may be regarded as a virtue.”大意是说,对律师以外的人士来讲,仍然是一道壁垒。从促进行业经济的健康发展、保留行业特点和防止未经授权进行律师执,可以把这种语言壁垒看做是一种行业优势。

大陆法系的非英语国家,面对加入WTO后全球经济一体化的严峻挑战,中国应该怎样应对各类国际交往和国际贸易英文法律文件呢?尽管Plain English(直白英语)似乎是大势所趋,但法律英语直白化不是一蹴而就的事情,即普法工作,法律语言也不是普罗大众所能轻易理解和运用的。所以,与其坐而论道法律英语直白化,不如行而学习格式和用语,在这个意义上,拿来主义是必需的。不通晓现行广泛使用的英语合同,何谈取其精华,去其糟粕,何况对其进行革新与发展,化为己用呢?

针对英文合同的特色,拟从篇章结构、遣词用语、句式结构以及时态语态四大方面进行说明:

节篇章结构特点(Text Structure)

完整的英文合同通常可以分为标题(Title)、前言(Preamble)、正文(Habendum)、附录(Schedule)及证明部分即结tion)五大部分。标题开宗明义地显示合同的性质;前言用最简单的说明大略介绍合同订立的背景;正文里包括依各的不同而约定的具体条款,还包括不论何种类型合同都会出现的一般条款;附录构成对前述合同正文条款的必要补合同都有该部分);最后,结尾则是当事人签名前的一段文字,为整份合同画上完满的句号。以下分别就此五部分

合同的标题(Title)

英文合同和中文合同都一样,标题并不是一定要有的,因为当事人间的法律关系是用合同内容的各个条款来判断,会产生任何影响。但为方便辨识的考虑,合同撰写人通常都会依照合同性质,在合同首页的最上方给予一个适当的同名称在第一章中已有介绍,在此不再赘述,仅补充说明:Confirmation(确认书)、Order(订单)也会经常出现在简。

合同的前言(Preamble)

合同在标题之后,各式各样的条款出现之前,通常会先有一段前言,也称序言、导言、总则等, 也见有称为“Non part”者。前言一般不会占去太多的篇幅,目的在于很简略地介绍合同内容之人、事、时、地、物等背景,让阅读接触冗长复杂的正文前,先有一个基础的认识与心理准备。详细来说,前言通常又分作以下两个段落:

部分文字叫做 “Parties” ,也就是合同的开场白(Commencement),内容为说明当事人姓名或名称、国籍或注册地或主营业地、订约日期、各自在合同中的简称等等。

OYMENT CONTRACT (SALES)

OYMENT AGREEMENT is made and entered into onday of(month), (year), by and between:(hereinafter refes the “Company”), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of, with its refice located at, and (hereinafter referred to as the “Employee”), an individual, with nationality No.) residing at.

用协议于年月日签订,双方当事人为:依州法律组织设立并存续的公司 (以下简称本公司) , 注册地位于,与国籍:)(以下简称雇员), 居住于。

y and between

合同是由哪些当事人所订定。英文中通常会说“This Agreement is made by and between...”,用“by”来表示,“between”来表示谁与谁之间的订立。如果当事人不止两个,也可以用“by and among”来代替。

rganized and existing

开场白里要说明当事人的国籍,在自然人的情况下可以用“a national of ...”或“an individual with the naf ...”来表示,如果是法人组织多半使用“organized and existing under the laws of ...”这样的字眼,其中d”也可以用“incorporated”来代替。

egistered office

gistered office”是指一个公司的注册所在地,它和“principal office” 或“principal place of business”并不一定位于同一个地方。

部分叫做“Recitals”,是由数个以“Whereas”字样开头的句子所组合而成,这些句子俗称为“Whereas Clauses)。 “Whereas”的本义是“When in fact”、“considering that”或“that being the case”的意思,所以“auses”就表示当事人乃是基于对这些事实(例如订约的目的、背景、原由等)的共同认识,订立此合同。以下是一合同(Compensation Trade Contract)的Whereas Clauses,简单明了地表达了双方合作的意愿。

ESSETH

eas Party B has machines and equipment, which are now used in Party Bs manufacturing of steel wir is willing to sell to Party A the machines and equipment; and

eas Party B agrees to buy the products, steel wire rope, made by Party A using the machines and equiy B supplies, in compensation of the price of the machines and equipment, and

eas Party A agrees to purchase from Party B the machines and equipment, and

eas Party A agrees to sell to Party B the products, the steel wire rope, in compensation of the pricy Bs machines and equipment;

明(通常不译)

乙方拥有用于生产钢丝绳的机械设备,愿向甲方出售该机械设备;

乙方同意购买甲方用乙方所供应的该机械设备生产的产品钢丝绳来补偿该机械设备的价款;

甲方同意从乙方购买该机械设备;

甲方同意向乙方出售产品钢丝绳以补偿乙方机械设备的价款;

在一串Whereas Clauses之后,会出现类似上例中的“Now therefore, in consideration[对价/约因(港台多用此语这样一句话,表明合同是有偿合同,目的在提醒阅读合同的人,真正规范订约当事人权利义务关系的条款在这句话了,也就是说,这句话是前言与正文之间过渡的桥梁,在此之前为订约背景事实的叙述,在此之后则为关于交易关(一般称为“operative part/clauses”)。

:Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Pree as follows:...

上述各点和契约所载条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:„„

正文(Hanbendum/Operative part)

正文(Hanbendum) 部分, 也称Operative part/clauses或Body, 具体约定当事人的权利义务。各式各样的正文条核心的部分,也是篇幅最大的部分,与当事人的权利义务关系发生最直接、最密切的牵连。

本书拟将英文合同中的正文条款分为两类:特殊条款与一般条款。所谓特殊条款指的是只有在某些特定性质的合同条款,例如劳动合同中通常会约定保密条款、竞业禁止条款,但是买卖合同就不会有这些约定。反过来说,买卖合载交易标的、交易条件等条款,在劳动合同中就不会出现。

于特殊条款的所谓一般条款,指的是不论合同性质如何,几乎所有的合同中都会记载的条款,例如管辖法院的约定,将于第四章中详细介绍,在此亦不赘述。

附录(Schedule)

也称Addendum, Annex或Exhibit,也有用Attachment, List或Table表示的。附录部分作为对正文条款的补充,文合同都有的一项。以下就是一份聘用协议的附录,对该公司聘用的经理职责作出补充说明:

SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO

manage, maintain and promote the business of the Company.

attend personally during the usual hours of business and to supervise and control the business and ssible to customers and employees of the Company.

keep the usual books of account.

pay daily all money received in the business into the Companys bank account.

nerally to protect the interests of the Company.

提及的附录是指:

理、维持并促进公司的经营。

自参与公司的日常经营,监管经营,对本公司的客户和员工平易亲和。

管日常账册。

付日常公司经营到账的款项。

泛地保护公司的利益。

,即便是有这部分的英文合同,也经常因为附录的内容庞杂、篇幅较长而放在合同的最后单独列明,如有关的图表文书。下文就是单独列在合同后的附录的一个信用证:

BIT B:Letter of Credit

BANK LIMLTED

dress]

it Bank, N. A.

rnational Banking Facility

Angeles, California 90000 U.S.A.

:

er of Credit No.:

lemen:

ereby establish this irrevocable letter of credit in your favor for account of ABC Company in the amS $(amount in words), available against your draft(s) drawn at sight on Credit Bank, N.A., Letter opartment, Los Angeles, California, accompanied by your signed and dated statement as follows:

e amount drawn under Letter of Credit No.[]dated[]issued by XYZ Bank Limited on behalf of ABC Com

ble to the undersigned pursuant to the terms of that certain Loan Agreement dated as of , , between and Credit Bank. N.A.”

drafts drawn under this Letter of Credit must bear the clause “Drawn under XYZ Bank Limited Letter umber, dated,”.

ial drawings are permitted.

ereby engage with the drawers, endorsers and bona fide holders of drafts drawn under and in complian terms of this Letter of Credit that the drafts will be duly honored if drawn and presented to the an in Los Angeles, California, on or before [Expiry date 30 days after the final Installment Payment Letter of Credit is subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (1983 Revisternational Chamber of Commerce, Publication No. 400.

ial Instructions to Drawee Bank

eimbursement for any payment made by you hereunder, you may debit our account with you.

BANK LIMITED

horized Signature)

B:

银行

信贷银行

银行业务部

加利福尼亚洛杉矶,90000

证号码:

在此开立,以ABC公司为受益人、总额为美元的不可撤销信用证,凭交加利福尼亚洛杉矶北美信贷银行信用证部开付款。并附有贵行签署、具名日期的如下声明:

XYZ银行代表ABC公司年月日开立的第号信用证项下款项系根据ABC公司与北美信贷银行年月日订立的某贷款协议与签字人。”

项下开具的汇票须注明“本汇票系凭XYZ银行年月日第号信用证下开具”的条款。

部分提款。

据本证开具与本证条款相符的汇票,如按时开具提交我行,我行保证对出票人、背书人和善意持有人不迟于最后分

0天内承担付款责任。

用证系根据国际商会第400号出版物跟单信用证统一惯例与实务(1983年版)缮制。

行特别指令

本信用证项下所付款项,记入我行与贵行的借记账户。

银行

签字

证明部分(Attestation)

合同结构中的最后一个部分就是结尾辞,即证明部分与当事人的签名。所谓结尾辞指的是在当事人签名之前经常会字,相当于中文合同中“双方签字盖章,特此为证”。除了表明签名人确实为正当授权的代表外,还会具明签名的名档的部分,如果当事人是公司的话,除了代表人的签名以外,还要加盖公司印鉴,并且通常会注明代表人的职务ITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by duly authorized repr of both parties on the date and year first written above.

y:

e:Title:

议由被授权之人,于本协议上述所记载日期,代表双方当事人缔结生效之,特此为证。

人:代表人:

:职务:

n witness whereof

个词是英文合同结尾辞的标准模式,实体上讲并没有什么特别的功能或意义,与中文合同里最后通常会记载的“恐立契为证”很类似,也有用“IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF”代替,有时候也会用“INTENDING TO BE LEGALLY BOUND”代是一样的。

uly authorized representatives

同之当事人为法人组织时,必须推选出一位自然人作为法定代表人,例如,公司的法定代表人通常会是董事长,代订合同,建立权利义务关系。除了董事长根据法律当然具备对外代表公司的许可权之外,公司董事会也可以通过决董事、总经理或其他重要职员作为公司签约的代表人,此时与公司签约的对方当事人为了确保这个代表人的确属于orized representative”,可以要求公司提供这个授权的董事会决议证明,以妥善保护自己的权益。下面就是一个购员的授权决议:

D OF DIRECTORS RESOLUTION

GNATING A PURCHASING AGENT

uant to a duly made, seconded, and carried motion the Board of Directors of (hereinafter referred totion) adopted the following resolution by a unanimous vote:

LVED, thatis hereby appointed Purchasing Agent of this Corporation with limited authority to make puthe Corporations name and behalf. Under no circumstances will the Purchasing Agent have real or ahority to make a purchase for the Corporation if the dollar amount of said purchase or the total dolof an installment purchase will exceed the amount ofdollars ($).

e undersigned,, certifies that he or she is the duly appointed Secretary of Corporation and that the true and correct copy of a resolution duly adopted at a meeting of the directors thereof, convened accordance with law and the Bylaws of said Corporation on, (Date) and that such resolution is now ie and effect.

ITNESS THEREOF, I have affixed my name as Secretary of Corporation and have attached the seal of Cto this resolution.

d:

etary:

:

会决议:

采购员:

第二次提起到董事会的动议,本公司董事会全体一致通过如下决议:

议,本公司授权为本公司采购员,以本公司名义代表本公司对外采买。但其单笔采购金额或分期购买的总额不得超过数额该采购员概无真实或表见代理权。

签字人,证明,他/她是本公司正式任命的秘书,以上是本公司董事会决议的真实准确的副本,该决议系按法律和本年月日召开的董事会上正式通过,现完全有效。

公司秘书,我签字并盖公司印鉴于该决议,特此为证。

:年月日

:(签字)

印鉴:(盖章)

he date and year first written above

合同结尾辞里注明的日期和合同前言所载明的日期相同,就用这句话表示,如果不同的话,就应该另以条款明定合fective Date),以免产生争议。如下例:

r this contract is signed by the duly authorized representatives of both parties, both parties shall contract to their governments or Boards of Directors for approval. The date when the later party obapproval shall be taken as the effective date of the contract. Both parties shall attempt to get thepproval within 60 days from signing and notify by telex or cable the other party of the approval whiirmed by the following registered airmail letter.

同经双方正式授权代表签署后,应提交各自政府或董事会批准。以后一方获得批准日期为本合同生效日。双方应尽后60日内获得批准并以电传或电报形式通知该批准,随后以航空挂号邮件确认。

节遣词用语特点(Wording and Expression)

正式法律文件,英语合同在用词方面极其考究,要求选词专业(professional)、正式(formal)、准确(accura现如下:

专业性术语(Technical Terms/ Terminology)

专业性术语是在合同等法律文件中才用到的词汇,它并不以一般受众为对象,而针对专业人士,力求使语言表达准确

同中常见的诸如“瑕疵”(defect)、“救济”(remedy)、“不可抗力”(Force Majeure)、“管辖”(jurisd业用词就已经让非专业人士大惑不解,英文合同的专业用词自然就更玄妙无比了。 具体的实例如下:

hout prejudice to the parties rights under Clause 18. 1, the indemnities provided for in Clause 1

16. 2 and/or 16. 3 shall be the sole compensation for the damages caused by such delays.不妨害18.1款,16.1、16.2及16.3款规定的赔偿应为上述延误引起损害的唯一赔偿金。

mnities较compensation专业,此处用compensation解释了indemnities。

ny such assignment, transfer or conveyance shall be without other consideration than the mutual coveconsiderations of this agreement.任何转让除根据本协议相互契约和对价外不得考虑其他。

sfer,assignment和conveyance都有转让的含义,其中assignment和conveyance(多用于不动产)尤为专业。 e advise you of our intention to terminate our tenancy on or before (Date) and to deliver to you fun of the premises.我方不迟于某日期通知你方终止租约并交还房屋全部所有。

ncy指房屋租赁的租约,而premises指租赁的房屋及其附属物,都是专业用语。

icensee agrees to pay to Licensor a minimum royalty ofDollars ($) as a minimum guarantee against roye paid to Licensor during the first contract term, said minimum royalty to be paid on or before the of the initial term hereto. 受许可方同意支付许可方最低使用费美元作为该许可合同第一期使用费的最低保证使用费不迟于本合同的入门期最后一天支付给许可方。

lties在许可合同中专指特许权使用费。

rice of the Contract shall be calculated on Royalty in accordance with the content and scope stipula

cle 2 to the Contract and shall be paid in.按照第2条规定的内容和范围。本合同采用提成方式计算价格,计。

例不同的是,这里的royalty指的是许可合同计价方式的一种即提成计价(royalty price),相对于统包价格(lump。

efault in observing or performing any of the covenants or agreements of debtor set forth in any collment of security given to secure indebtedness hereunder, and the continuation of such default beyondod of grace specified in any such document.借款人未能履行契约或附带的担保文件列明的协议,并且该违约的述文件规定的宽限期。

款合同中grace专指宽限期,而不是普通英语的其他意思。

urthermore, the parties agree that the following situations shall be considered as exceptional circuch justify the earlier termination by the other party: bankruptcy, moratorium, receivership, liquidany kind of composition between the debtor and the creditors, or any circumstances which are likely tbstantially one partys ability to carry out his obligations under this contract。此外,双方同意以是对方合理提前终止合同的例外情形:破产、延付令、破产在管、清算或其他债权人和债务人任何形式的和解,或方履行合同项下义务能力造成实质影响的情形。

的composition显然不是普通英语中“作文”的意思,而是指破产和解。

n addition, upon request of the Board and if the Liquidating Trustee determines that it would be impispose of any noncash assets of the Company, such assets may be distributed in kind to the Member of cash, proportionately to their right to receive cash distributions hereunder.另外,应董事会请求且管人确定处理本公司非现金财产非明智之举,该财产可按各成员根据合同项下收取现金份额的权利以实物形式替代。

ind 此处与in cash 相对,通常用于合资、合伙协议中表示“以实物出资”,本句中是以实物分配清算。In lieu代”,相当于基础英语中的instead of。

he Buyer shall establish the covering letter of credit before the date specified in Clause Three of onfirmation, failing which the Seller reserves the right to rescind without further notice, or to ace or any part of this Sales Confirmation not fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for losses if any.买方须于销售确认书第3条所规定的日期之前开出本批交易的信用证。否则,售方有权不经通知取消本确认买方对本销售确认书未履行的全部或一部分,或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。

rve为专用词汇,我们常见的“版权所有”英语表达就是All rights reserved。Rescind(取消合同/协议)和lod,与claim(s)连用]也都是专业用语。

n case one party desires to sell or assign all or part of his investment subscribed, the other party the preemptive right. 如一方欲出售或转让其所投资的部分或全部,另一方应有优先购买权。

gn(其名词形式assignment)和Preemptive属专业用语。

式用语(Formal Terms)

合同,习惯采用书面的形式,合同往往使用正式的书面用语,较少使用口头用语,以显示合同正规、严肃。具体实例t the request of Party B, Party A agrees to send technicians to assist Party B to install the equipm求,甲方同意派遣技术人员帮助乙方安装设备。

st 较 help 正式。

he personnel shall not to partake in any political activities in Iraq.所有人员不得参加伊拉克国内的任

ake in 较 take part in 正式。

he Employer shall render correct technical guidance to the personnel.雇主应该对有关人员给予正确技术指er较give正式。

arty A shall repatriate the patient to China and bear the cost of his passage to Guangzhou.甲方应将病并负责其返回广州的旅费。

triate 较 send back 正式。

his Contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of China.本合同受中国法律国法律解释。

true 较 explain, interpret 正式。in accordance with 较according to正式。

he Employer may object to and require the Contractor to replace forthwith any of its authorized reprwho is incompetent.雇主认为承包人委派的授权代表不合格时,可以反对并要求立即撤换。

ire较ask正式;而且,require表示上对下的要求,ask没有这么明确,它含有request和require之意,其中r下对上的要求,即“请求”。公文体forthwith 较 at once 正式。

he Chairperson may convene and preside an interim meeting based on a proposal made by onethird ofumber of directors.董事长可以根据董事会超过1/3董事的提议而召集主持临时董事会议。

ene较hold正式,preside较be in charge of 正式,interim也是正式用词,较temporary正式。

n processing transactions, the manufacturers shall never have title either to the materials or the fucts.加工贸易中,厂方无论是对原料还是成品都无所有权。

e较ownership 正式。

he term “Effective date” means the date on which this Agreement is duly executed by the parties he日期”指双方签约之日。

ute较sign正式。

he submission to and consent by the Engineer of such programs or the provision of such general descrash flow estimates shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his duties or responsibilities under t.向工程师提交并同意的上述进度计划或提供上述一般说明或现金流量估算,并不解除合同规定的承包人的任何义务ent和estimate都是正式用词。

he Appendix hereto shall, through the contract period, be deemed to be construed as an integral parttract. 整个合同期间,本合同附件应解释为合同不可分割的一部分。

较consider正式。

he parties shall work together in order to endeavour to achieve the timely completion of the Projectce with the Project Schedule as Annex 4 according to which the construction period shall beyears froencement date.双方共同努力确保按附件四的工程进度表及时竣工,根据该工程进度表工期应从开工日起年。

encement较starting、beginning正式。

同、近义词,相关词并列(Parallel Synonyms, Parasynonyms and Associated/Binomial Expressions) 文合同中同、近义词或相关词成对或多个并列连用,使合同周密严谨,以减少漏洞和争议。

his agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.本协议由甲方与乙方签订。 made与entered into同义,而by与between相关。

arty A agrees to purchase from Party B the following commodity under the terms and conditions set ou同意按照下列条款向乙方购买如下商品。

s和conditions同义,往往并列连用表示合同的条款。

arty A shall be unauthorized to accept any order sort to collect any account on and after September 日起,甲方已无权接受任何订单或收据。

与after相关词连用,用以明确时间。

ny partner or his/her agent, may review any and all accounting or other records at anytime.任何合伙人,可随时审查任一或全部会计账目或其他记录。

与all相关词连用,表达更为严谨。

he decision by such arbitration shall be accepted as final and binding upon both parties。该仲裁裁决双方均受其约束。

l和binding属相关词连用。

he Company hereby releases and discharges Party A from further performance of, and any duties, obligiabilities under the amended Agreement.本公司特此解除甲方已修正协议的进一步履行及其修正协议下的义务ase和discharge相关词连用,duty,obligation和liability属近同义词连用。

f the Contractor shall duly perform and observe all the terms, provisions, conditions and stipulatiosaid Contract, this obligation shall be null or void but otherwise shall be and remain in full forcect.如果承包人切实履行并遵守上述合同的所有条款、条件及规定,此义务即告终止,否则将保持完全有效。 terms, provisions, conditions,stipulations为一组同义词,意为合同的条款及规定,null和void,be和re和effect也都是同义连用。

hile this agreement is in effect, the Author shall not, without the prior written consent of the Pubte, edit, print, or publish, or cause to be written, edited, printed or published, any other editionk, whether revised, supplemented, corrected, enlarged, abridged, or otherwise。本协议有效期间,未经出面同意,著作权人不得写作、编辑、印刷或出版,或促成他人写作、编辑、印刷或出版作品的其他版本,无论修订、扩充、节选或以其他方式。

write, edit, print, or publish属近义词连用。

ay be fixed or varied from time to time at and in accordance with the sole discretion and opinion of...可按卖方自行的判断和意见不时确定或更改„„

的discretion and opinion属于近义词连用。

or/ er和ee名词的成对使用

文合同中,经常会见到成对使用的这类名词,表示动作的支配者和受支配者,如employeremloyee(雇主—雇员rassignee(转让方—受让方), lessorlessee(出租人—承租人), licensorlicensee(许可方—被许可方payee(付款人—收款人), offerorofferee(要约方—受约方), promisorpromisee(要约人—受约人),大写字母的运用(Capitalization)

合同中,有些词的首字母需要大写。需要大写首字母的词除了基础英语中用在句首的一般情形外,尤其应注意下列事人

人指合同双方或各方(一般为两方以上)时,首字母通常大写。例如:

y B shall inspect the raw materials supplied by Party A forthwith upon receipt thereof.

应一经收到甲方提供的原材料,即行检验。

构名称

合同中涉及的机构名称,首字母要大写。例如:

a International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission(简称CIETAC)(中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会rnational Institute for the Unification of Private Law (简称UNIDROIT)

际统一私法协会)

Board of Directors (董事会)

同涉及的特指名称

文合同中,一些涉及的关键词语,一般首字母要大写。通常会在合同的定义条款中定义,然后再重复使用。例如:Acceptance Test Manual shall be the document prepared by A which will be used by A and the Purchaserking that the Equipment is in accordance with the specification and Approved Data.本验收实验手册系指,供A与买方检验设备是否符合技术规格和认可资料的文件。

的Acceptance Test Manual , Equipment, Approved Data均有特指含义。

合同及合同具体条款及附件名称

Site Acceptance shall take place within a period of two weeks after the Effective Date to the Contr period may be extended pursuant to Article 6 hereof.现场验收应在本合同生效日后2周内进行,此项验收的同第6条延长。

y A and Party B shall make full endeavors to fulfill this Contract with the stipulated period. The svarious activities is attached at Appendix 4.甲乙双方应竭尽全力在规定的期间内完成本合同,各活动的日程。

际公约、惯例和国家法律法规、条例规章等的名称

:This Contract is signed on a mutuality voluntary basis by and between the following Employer and Eaccordance with “The Labour Law of The Peoples Republic of China”.本合同在自愿的基础上由聘用方和《中华人民共和国劳动法》达成协议如下。

提及的国际公约、惯例的首字母也需大写,如:

rnational Chamber of Commerce Term 2000,也称International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade TerINCOTERMS 2000) 《2000年国际贸易术语解释通则》

ed Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods(简称CISG)

合国国际货物买卖合同公约》

Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits,1993 Revision ICC Publication No. 500《跟单统一例》(1993年修订本,国际商会第500号出版物)

Uniform Law on International Sale of Goods 《国际货物买卖统一法》

Uniform Law on the Formation OF Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 《国际货物买卖合同成立Principles of International Commercial Contracts《国际商事合同通则》

同中的货币名称

y A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US$600 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY). 聘方须每月付给受00元整。

表示后接大写,ONLY表示“整”。

,英文合同为强调某些部分而用大写字母书写,以资醒目。

在英文合同的开头往往有这样的句子:This AGREEMENT ... WITNESSES that WHEREAS ... and WHEREAS ... NOW in consideration of it is hereby agreed as follows:...

古体词与外来词(Archaic Words and Loan Words)

合同中迄今仍然使用一些古体词语,最突出的形式是把here, there, where加上介词而构成的复合副词。如:her hereunto, herein, hereinafter, hereinbefore, hereunder, thereof, thereto,whereby, whereas,等等。H类往往可以套用介词+this agreement来帮助理解。There/where+介词就需要考虑上下文参照here+介词的理解方法解和运用将在第三章中英文合同常用词一节详述。

民法法系对普通法系的影响,英文合同的外来词主要是法语和拉丁语,有些外来词已经同化为英语,成为英语词汇有一些保留下来,现在仍在使用。连Contract这个词都是从拉丁语contractus演化而来的。英文合同中常见的不的Force Majeure也是拉丁语。具体例子如下:

he arbitration shall take place in the Plaintiffs or Defendants country.仲裁应在原告或被告的国家ntiff 和 defendant原为法语,现在已同化为英语。

hat we said regarding the first contract applies mutatis mutandis to all later ones.我们就第一个合同修正适用于所有的后续合同。

tis mutandis为拉丁语,意为已作必要的修正。

n allowance on the basis of 2% of the sales price for each unit shall be calculated and deducted fro

hase price fraction pro rata. 补贴应按每单位售价的2%计算并从购价中按比例扣除。

rata 为拉丁语,意为按比例“in proportion”, according to a factor that can be calculated exactly. e appoint and empower Mr./Ms. to be our agent ad litem in the first and second instances and/or retrvely, as well as in the enforcement procedures, with respect to the case of vs..我方委托授权某先生/女审、二审、再审和执行程序的委托代理人。

item为拉丁语,意为“for the suit”. Agent ad litem意为诉讼代理人。

助动词的准确使用(Auxiliaries)

合同中,shall并非单纯表示将来时,而常用来表示法律上可强制执行的义务,具有约束力,“应”、“应该”、“必形式shall not则禁止某种行为,一般宜译为“不得”。 will无论语气还是强制力都要比shall弱,宜译为“将”、“;should通常只用来表示语气较强的假设,比如“万一”。 多用“shall”代替“will”或“should”加强语气和

his Contract shall become effective upon and from the date on which it is signed.本合同签字生效。 his Contract shall be written in English in four copies. Each party shall keep two copies.本合同应以式四份,双方各持两份。

nvestment contributed by the parties is Renminbi, which will be the registered capital of the joint any. 各方认缴投资总额为人民币元,将作为合资公司注册资本。

则时常用来表达当事人拥有的选择性权利。如During the Option Period, the Purchaser may terminate this A

th a written notice to the Seller. 选择期间,买方可书面通知卖方终止本协议。但其否定形式may not另看下he parties hereto shall, first of all, settle any dispute arising from or in connection with the conriendly negotiations. Should such negotiations fail, such dispute may be referred to the Peoples ng jurisdiction on such dispute for settlement in the absence of any arbitration clause in the disput or in default of agreement reached after such dispute occurs.首先,合同双方应通过友好协商解决合同产关的争议。如协商不成,所争议合同缺少仲裁条款或争议后未达成仲裁协议,则该争议可提交到有管辖权的人民法

中shall,should和may的表达准确,符合人们通过“协商—仲裁—诉讼”解决争议的基本流程。Shall表示义务性表示虚拟条件,may表示行使选择性权利。

节句式结构特点(Sentence Structure)

句子冗长,结构严谨,语序复杂(prolixity, preciseness and perplexity)

合同为了准确、严密、清楚地表达,多以庞杂的从句和/或短语并列,语序复杂多变的长句面目出现,很少以简单句主句的状语,一般放在助动词后,行为动词前,与基础英语频度副词often,sometimes,always,never,seldom例如:

he Company shall, at all time during the term of the Joint Venture, effect and maintain full and aderance against loss or damage by fire and such risks as are customarily issued in connection with theof the Company.合资公司应在合资期间的任何时候,就火灾以及此类与公司经营相关的其他风险所造成的损失或损,并保持充分和适当的保险。

f, at any time during the execution of the Work, the Engineer requires the Contractor to make boreo carry out exploratory excavation, such requirement shall in accordance with Clause 51, be the subj

nstruction unless an item or a Provisional Sum in respect of such work is included in the Bill of Qu工程施工过程中的任何时间内,如果工程师要求承包人钻孔或进行勘探性开挖,则根据第51条规定以指示形式下达但工程量报价表中已经包括了涉及此类工作的项号或暂定金额者除外。

从句复杂,从句的状语,往往放在连词之后,从句的句子之前。例如:

f, at any time during the execution of the Contract, either of the Parties to the contract is prevencuting the Contract in case of Force Majeure such as war, serious fires, flood, typhoon and earthquahe time for execution of the Contract shall be extended for a period equal to the affect of those ca期间的任何时候,合同任一方,由于受到战争、严重火灾、洪水、台风和地震等不可抗力事件的影响而不能履行合行期应予延长,延长期限相当于事件影响的时间。

f, at the time and in the place agreed under SubClause 37.3, the materials or plant are not readying or testing or if, as a result of the inspection or testing referred to in this Clause, the Enginnes that the materials or plant are defective or otherwise not in accordance with the Contract, the y reject the materials or the plant and shall notify the Contract thereof immediately.如果在按第37.间和地点,供检查和检验的材料或工程设备未准备好,或者按本条规定所作的检查或检验结果,工程师认为材料或陷或是不符合合同规定的,则工程师可拒收这些材料或工程设备,并应立即通知承包人。(本句较为复杂,有两个个宾语从句。)

主从复合句,从句经常用简略形式。例如:

party dissatisfied with the judgment may, within 15 days upon receipt of the judgment, file an appenext upper Peoples Court.如不服本判决,该方可于接到判决之日起15日内向上一级法院提起上诉。

he Contractor shall, unless otherwise provided in the Contract, make his own arrangement for the engll staff and labour, local or other, and for their payment, housing, feeding and transport.除合同另有

包人应自行安排从当地或其他地方雇用的所有职员和劳务人员,以及他们的报酬、住房、膳食和交通。 否定前置与倒装(Negative Fronting and Anastrophe)

中处理否定的方式一般有两种:一是否定词放在情态动词或助动词后,行为动词前,构成正常的陈述语序;二是否,然后情态动词或助动词与主语位置调换,构成倒装语序。英文合同中含否定意义的句子往往采用后者。 否定仅前置:(Fronting)

othing in Article 12.3 shall prevent Party A or any of its affiliation from continuing to carry on ar present businesses.合同第12条第3款规定不得妨碍甲方或其分支机构持续经营现有业务。

either party, without prior consent of the other, may assign or transfer to any third party any equi held by its side.未经对方同意,任一方不得向任何第三人转让其持有的股权。

否定倒装:(Anastrophe)

n no event shall the Seller be liable for lost profits, delay, injury to goodwill or any special or l damages howsoever any of the same are caused.对于利润损失、延误、商誉损害或任何特别或间接的损害赔偿原因引起的,卖方概不承担责任。

n this case, Party B shall refund to Party A the amount which Party A has paid to Party B plus the rrest at the rate of 10% per year immediately, but in no case shall such refunding by Party B exceedsom receipt from Party A of the notice to terminate the contract.在此种情况下,乙方应立即返还甲方已支项并按年利率10%加算利息,但不论怎样,乙方该返还不得超过收到甲方终止合同通知后30日。

被动语态(Passive Voice)

和基础英语一样,英文合同中如果不必知道行为主体、不知道行为主体、想强调行为结果时,就会使用被动语态。被作为后置定语、状语或者句子的谓语。例如:

ailure to notify Party A shall be deemed to be a material breach of this Agreement.未能按上述要求通知视为构成实质违约。(作谓语)

eller agrees to sell and the Buyer agrees to buy the undermentioned goods subject to terms and condiforth hereinafter as follows.按如下列明的条款,卖方同意出售,买方同意购买下述商品。(作后置定语) herefore, Executive agrees that the Company shall be entitled to an injunction restraining Executiveactual or threatened breach of paragraphs 7, 8 or 9 or to any other appropriate equitable remedy witbond or other security being required.因此,董事同意本公司无须提供任何保证或其他担保,有权发出申请禁何实际或危及违反7、8或9节的行为,或获得任何其他适当衡平救济。(作状语)

he payment of all the expenses under this contract shall be made by M/T through Bank of China, Shenznd the bank designated by Party B.所有合同项下的费用均应通过中国银行深圳分行和乙方指定银行进行支付。置定语)

pon termination or dissolution of the Partnership,the partnership will be promptly liquidated, witheing paid first, prior to any distribution of the remaining funds.合伙企业一经终止或解散,合伙企业立分割剩余财产前,首先偿还所有债务。(作谓语和状语)

Such...as的用法

合同力求严密、准确,为避免误解和歧义,常用such...as作关系代词,引导从句,把所修饰的词或短语放在suc明确含义。例如:

he Engineer shall have authority to issue to the Contractor, from time to time, such supplementary D

instructions as shall be necessary for the purpose of the proper and adequate execution and completiWorks and the remedying of any defects therein.工程师有权随时向承包人发出合理和恰当施工、竣工及修补工需的补充图纸和指令。

shall provide such information and data as useful and necessary for the negotiation and appoint a pooperate with the representatives from C or New Company and the Peoples Insurance Company of Chinge of the negotiation.乙方应向丙方或新公司和主管该谈判的中国人民保险公司提供谈判所需的有用资讯材料,上述各方进行配合。

he Employee shall also comply with such future Employer policies, rules, regulations, performance stmanuals as may be published or amended from time to time. 受聘员工也应遵守可随时公布或修改的聘用方今守则、规定、行为规范和员工手册。

he Contractor shall provide the following personnel on the Site for the purpose of the execution andof the Works and remedying of any defects:Only such technical assistants as are skilled and experienr respective callings (fields) and such formen and leading hands as are competent to give proper supe of the Works.承包人应为施工、竣工或修补工程缺陷向现场(工地)提供:在本行业中技术熟练、经验丰富的技对工程给予正确监督的监工和领班。

ll material, Plant and Workmanship shall, from time to time, be subject to such tests and inspectionineer may require at the place of manufacture, fabrication or preparation, or on the Site, or at succe or places as may be specified in the Contract, or at all or any of such places.一切材料、工程设备按工程师可能提出的要求,在制造、装配或准备地点,或在现场,或在合同规定的其他地点或若干地点,或在所有中任何地点进行检验。

节时态特点(Tense)

由于合同具有预见性,其约定是希望未来发生、可能发生、应避免发生的事宜,所以英文合同中的时态多为一般将在时(从句中多见)。而且往往以“应当做”(shall do)、“可以做”(may do)、“必须做”(must do)、“may not/shall not)等表达形式出现来说明当事人的权利、义务。参看第二章第二节,在此不再赘述。也有基础英ill、will not、to do及do(用于强调语气)的表达形式。绝少看到其他时态和表达方式。

:In case Party B becomes delinquent in the payment of any sum due hereunder, Party A will be entitlend the performance until such delinquent is corrected, and initiate termination for cause in accord Section 10.2.乙方违约未按本协议规定按期支付的,甲方有权中止履行协议,直至该违约得以纠正,甲方还有权条第2款规定的事由出现时终止本协议的执行。

ase从句和until从句中一般现在时,主句用will do表一般将来时。

:Licensee agrees that it will not during the term of this agreement, or thereafter, attack the titlhts of Licensor in and to the Name or attack the validity of this license.受许可方同意在本协议期间及对许可方名义侵害许可方的所有权或任何权利或侵害该许可的效力。

一般现在时,从句用will not表一般将来时的否定。

:The abovementioned loss to be calculated from the 16th day after expiry of the free storage time a should be borne by the Buyer with the exception of Force Majeure.上述损失从到港卸货仓储期届满后第1买方承担,不可抗力除外。

e calculated,将来可能需要计算的。

:In consideration of employment with the Company, I do hereby acknowledge the facts set out below a be bound as follows.考虑到受聘于公司,本人由此认可以下列明事实并同意受其约束。

强调郑重的语气,可不翻译出。

当然,在特定的情况下,偶尔也会看到完成时态、进行时态的表达。

:From time to time after Licensee has commenced selling the articles and upon Licensors written censee shall furnish without cost to Licensor not more than additional random samples of each articlufactured and sold by Licensee hereunder, together with any cartons, containers and packing and wraprial used in connection therewith.受许可方开始销售产品后,应许可方随时书面要求,不对许可方产生任何附加

方应向许可方提供根据本协议正在生产销售的随机样品及其相关的纸箱、集装箱和包装材料。

偶见不同时态的连用,如保密条款中保密除外的情形。...except to the extent the Receiving Party can demo the information:

as in the Receiving Partys possession at the time of disclosure by the Disclosing Party and the Rrty is not under a prior binder of confidentiality; or

露方披露时已为收受方持有的且收受方并不受先前的保密契约约束的资料;或

as or subsequently becomes generally available to the public through no fault or breach of this Agrehe Receiving Party; or

收受方违反本协议以前或后来从公众领域获得的资料;或

as received by the Receiving Party from a third party who has the right to transfer or disclose it; 方从有权转让或披露资料的第三方收受的该资料;或

s independently developed by the Receiving Party.

受方独立开发的资料。 ,(b)款中过去时和现在时连用,表达严谨。 .. 如果您想继续阅读,请您

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交易程序:买方发出LOI+BCL,卖方发FCO,双方签定合同。买方开信用证

预通知(MT799);卖方开2%的违约保函(PB)+POP文件;买方开出正式

的L/C,(BG,SBL/C,RDL/C);就是买方L/C激活卖方的2%,货物装

船。

4、交货时间:卖方收到买方银行保函后40+-5天交第一船货,第二船的交

货时间是30天以内。

本供货书长期有效。

LOI 采购意向书格式 LETTER OF INTENT (LOI) We,______________________, hereby that we are ready willing and able under the act of perj…

LOI 采购意向书格式 LETTER OF INTENT (LOI) We,______________________, hereby that we are ready willing and able under the act of perj…

LOI 采购意向书格式 LETTER OF INTENT (LOI) We,______________________, hereby that we are ready willing and able under the act of perj…

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