罗密欧与朱丽叶 投稿:赖簲簳

罗密欧与朱丽叶是一个威廉·莎士比亚写的悲剧关于两个年轻在他职业生涯的早期不幸的恋人的死亡最终调和他们不和的家庭。 这是在莎士比亚的最受欢迎的戏剧在他有生之年, 连同哈姆雷特是他的一个最常见的表演戏剧。 今天,被视为标题字符原型年轻的恋人。 罗密欧与朱…

物联网工程专业培养方案 一、培养目标 本专业培养德、智、体、美全面发展,掌握物联网基础理论和专业知识,注重物联网应用系统设计,具备信息采集、传输和处理的能力,面向物联网应用领域,从事物联网建设与维护、物联网应用系统设计与开发、嵌入式系统的设计与开发…

井冈山学习报告 张嘉宝 十月革命一声炮响,给中国送来了马克思主义。实际上,在此之前,中国的知识分子们已经对西方文明进行了许多学习思索,加上辛亥革命的失败,许多知识分子都沉浸在苦苦地思索中,就如毛主席《论人民民主专政》中所描述的“多次奋斗,包括辛亥革命…

罗密欧与朱丽叶是一个威廉·莎士比亚写的悲剧关于两个年轻在他职业生涯的早期不幸的恋人的死亡最终调和他们不和的家庭。 这是在莎士比亚的最受欢迎的戏剧在他有生之年,

连同哈姆雷特是他的一个最常见的表演戏剧。 今天,被视为标题字符原型年轻的恋人。 罗密欧与朱丽叶属于传统的悲剧恋情追溯到古代。 故事情节是基于一个意大利翻译成诗Romeus与朱丽叶的悲剧的历史通过阿瑟·布鲁克在1562年,讲述散文宫的快乐通过威廉的画家在1567年。 莎士比亚从负债累累,但扩大了情节通过开发一个支持的角色,尤其是茂丘西奥和巴黎。 据信已经写在1591年至1595年之间,最初发表在四开在1597年的版本。 第一个四开版本的文本是低质量的,然而,后来版本修正文本符合更紧密地与莎士比亚的原始。

莎士比亚的使用他的诗意戏剧性的结构(尤其是切换喜剧和悲剧等影响加剧紧张,扩张的次要人物,和他使用的插曲润故事)被誉为早期征兆戏剧性的技能。 这出戏将不同的诗歌形式不同的字符,有时改变形式随着性格的发展。 罗密欧,例如,变得更加擅长十四行诗的玩。 罗密欧与朱丽叶已经多次调整阶段,电影,音乐和歌剧场馆。 在英语恢复,这是恢复和重大的修订威廉Davenant。大卫灰吕18世纪的版本也修改几个场景,去除材料然后被认为是不雅,和Georg Benda的歌剧改编省略的行动,并添加一个圆满的结局。 表现在19世纪,包括Cushman夏洛特的年代,恢复原始文本,专注于更大的现实主义。约翰吉尔古德1935版本保持非常接近莎士比亚的文本,并使用伊丽莎白时代的服装和分段增强戏剧。 在20到21世纪,戏剧改编等众多版本的乔治·库克1935年的电影罗密欧与朱丽叶, 电影1968年版本罗密欧与朱丽叶,巴兹鲁赫曼1996年MTV-inspired罗密欧+朱丽叶。 关键的历史

最早的记录评论家的画像,塞缪尔·佩皮斯,通过约翰Hayls。 油画,1666年。 已知最早的评论家的记者塞缪尔·佩皮斯,他在1662年写道:―这是一个我听过玩自己最糟糕的在我的生命中。‖(58]诗人约翰•德莱顿写10年后的赞美,它的漫画人物茂丘西奥:―莎士比亚展示他的技能茂丘西奥,他说自己,他不得已伸出会杀死他的第三幕,防止被他。‖(58]在18世纪的批评不稀疏,但同样分裂。 出版商尼古拉斯·罗是第一个批判思考的主题,他认为的正义惩罚两个敌对的家庭。 在中世纪,作家查尔斯Gildon和哲学家主块菌子实体块认为这出戏失败了,它不遵循古典戏剧的规则:因为一些悲剧必须发生性格缺陷,而不是命运的一场事故。 作家和评论家塞缪尔·约翰逊然而,认为这是莎士比亚的一个―最令人愉悦的‖。(59]

在以后的18和19世纪的一部分,批评集中在争论道德剧的消息。 演员和剧作家大卫灰吕1748年改编排除罗莎琳:罗密欧朱丽叶被视为放弃她多变,不计后果。 批评人士等查尔斯Dibdin认为,罗莎琳一直故意包含在发挥展示不计后果的英雄,而这是他悲剧的原因。 其他人则认为劳伦斯修士可能莎士比亚在他的发言人警告操之过急。 随着20世纪初,这些道德论点被批评者如有争议理查德·格林默尔顿:他认为,事故,而不是某些性格缺陷,导致了恋人的死亡。(60]

戏剧性的结构

在罗密欧与朱丽叶,莎士比亚雇佣了一些戏剧性的技术获得评论家的好评,尤其是喜剧,悲剧的突然变化(就是一个例子夯实交流班,茂丘西奥只是提伯尔特到来之前)。 在第三阶段茂丘西奥的死之前,在很大程度上是一个喜剧。(61年]他意外死亡后,玩突然变得严重,呈现出一种悲剧性的基调。 当罗密欧被放逐,而不是执行,劳伦斯修士提供了朱丽叶的计划让她和罗

密欧,观众还能希望一切将结束。 他们在一个―扣人心弦的悬念‖打开坟墓的最后一幕:如果罗密欧是修士的到来推迟了足够长的时间,他和朱丽叶还可能得救。(62年]这些转变从希望到绝望,缓刑,新的希望,为强调悲剧最终希望失败,恋人死后。(63年]

莎士比亚也使用插曲提供一个清晰的观点主要人物的行动。 例如,当游戏开始时,罗密欧爱上了罗莎琳,他拒绝他所有的进步。 罗密欧的迷恋她站在明显与他后来对朱丽叶的爱。 这提供了一种比较的观众可以看到罗密欧与朱丽叶的爱情和婚姻的严重性。 巴黎的爱朱丽叶还设置一个对比朱丽叶罗密欧的感情对他和她的感情。 在巴黎她使用的正式语言,以及她谈到他的护士,表明她的感情显然与罗密欧。 除此之外,个细节Montague-Capulet不和成拱形的整个游戏,提供了一个讨厌的氛围,是主要的贡献者的悲剧结束。(63年]

语言

莎士比亚使用多种诗歌形式在整个游戏。 他以14-line开始序言的形式莎士比亚的十四行诗,使用一个合唱。 大部分的罗密欧与朱丽叶然而,写的吗无韵诗,它在严格的大部分地区抑扬格五音步有节奏的变化,低于大多数后来莎士比亚的戏剧。(64年]在选择形式,莎士比亚与诗歌人物使用它。 例如,劳伦斯修士使用布道和于形式,护士使用一个独特的无韵诗形式匹配口语。(64年]每一种形式也塑造和匹配字符占用的情感场景。 例如,当罗密欧早些时候谈到罗莎琳,他试图使用彼特拉克十四行诗的形式。 彼特拉克十四行诗是常常被人夸大女性的美丽是无法实现,就像罗密欧与罗莎琳的情况。 这十四行诗是凯普莱特夫人用来形容计数巴黎朱丽叶是一个英俊的男人。(65年]当罗密欧与朱丽叶相遇时,彼特拉克的诗歌形式的变化(莎士比亚的天变得过时的)一个更现代的十四行诗的形式,使用―朝圣者‖和―圣人‖的比喻。(66年]最后,当这两个满足在阳台上,罗密欧试图使用承诺他的爱的十四行诗,但朱丽叶打破它说―你爱我吗?‖(67年]通过这样做,她寻找真正的表达,而不是一个诗意的夸张他们的爱。(68年]与罗密欧朱丽叶使用单音节的词,但使用正式语言和巴黎。(69年]其他形式包括

一个玩颂歌朱丽叶,rhapsody茂丘西奥的麦布女王演讲,和一个挽歌由巴黎。(70年]莎士比亚保存他的散文风格最常的普通人,虽然有时他使用其他字符,如茂丘西奥。(71年]幽默也很重要:学者莫莉Mahood标识至少175文本中的双关语和文字游戏。(72年]许多这样的玩笑性的性质,特别是那些涉及茂丘西奥和护士。(73年]

精神分析批评

早期精神分析批评看到的问题罗密欧与朱丽叶罗密欧的冲动,源于―ill-controlled,部分掩盖侵略‖,导致茂丘西奥的死和双自杀。(74年] 罗密欧与朱丽叶并不认为是极其复杂,心理和交感神经精神分析阅读的悲剧男等效与疾病的经验。(75年]诺曼荷兰,1966年写作,认为罗密欧的梦想(76年]作为一个现实的―愿望的幻想在罗密欧的成人世界和他假想的童年阶段口服,生殖器和恋母情结的‖——虽然承认一个戏剧性的角色不是一个人心理过程独立于作者。(77年]批评人士等茱莉亚Kristeva关注家庭之间的仇恨,这种仇恨的原因是罗密欧与朱丽叶对彼此的热情。 仇恨直接表现在恋人的语言:朱丽叶,例如,谈到―我唯一的爱来自我唯一的恨‖(78年]和经常表达她的热情通过预期罗密欧的死亡。(79年]这导致投机剧作家的心理学,特别是考虑莎士比亚的悲伤为他儿子的死亡,哈姆内特。(80年]

女权主义批评

女权主义文学批评认为,家庭不和的原因是在于维罗纳父权社会。 葛蓓莉亚卡恩,例如,严格的,男性的暴力强加给罗密欧是主要动力的悲剧结束。 当提伯尔特杀死茂丘西奥,罗密欧转移到这个暴力模式,后悔,朱丽叶也让他很―娘娘腔‖。(81年]在这个视图中,年轻的男性―成为人‖参与暴力代表自己的父亲,或者在仆人的情况下,他们的主人。 不和也与男性气概,无数属地恰当地展示开玩笑。(82年]朱丽叶也提交一个女性的顺从,允许他人,如修士,为她解决她的问题。 其他评论家,如Dympna卡拉汉,看戏的女权主义历史主义玩时的角度,强调写

封建秩序正在受到越来越多的挑战中央政府和资本主义的出现。 与此同时,新兴清教徒关于婚姻不太关心―女性性行为的罪恶‖比早期更同情爱情结合:朱丽叶闪她父亲的试图强迫她嫁给一个男人她没有感觉

,她是挑战父权秩序的方式将不可能在更早的时间。(83年] 酷儿理论

许多评论家发现未得到茂丘西奥已经承认同性恋的角色对罗密欧的渴望。(84年]乔纳森·戈德堡检查茂丘西奥,罗密欧利用‖的性酷儿理论―在奇怪的文艺复兴时期比较他们的友谊和性的爱。 茂丘西奥,在友好的谈话中,提到了罗密欧阴茎,显示的痕迹同性恋。(85年]一个例子是他开玩笑的愿望‖提高精神在他的情妇的圆…… 让它,直到她把它,使它。‖(86年](87年]罗密欧的同性恋也可以发现他对罗莎琳的态度,一个遥远而不可用的女人,带着没有希望的后代。 作为班认为,她是最好的被人会报答。 莎士比亚的生殖十四行诗描述另一个年轻的男人,就像罗密欧,是难以创造后代,谁可能被视为同性恋。 Goldberg认为莎士比亚可能使用罗莎琳作为生育的方式来表达同性恋问题在一个可接受的方式。 在这个视图中,当朱丽叶说―… 我们称之为玫瑰,以其他名字同样芬芳‖,(88年]她可能提出的问题是否有区别的美一个男人和一个女人的美丽。(89年]

阳台上的场景

2014年10月,路易斯Leveen指出大西洋原来玩不包含一个阳台。(90年]这个词,balcone英语中不存在,直到两年后莎士比亚的死亡。(91年]阳台后来中使用托马斯·奥特韦1679年,学院的历史和秋季马吕斯借了太多的故事罗密欧与朱丽叶但把两个情人在阳台上背诵演讲类似罗密欧与朱丽叶之间。 在18世纪,大卫灰吕在他的适应和选择使用一个阳台的复兴罗密欧与朱丽叶和现代改编延续这一传统。(90年]

遗产 莎士比亚的天

Critical history

Portrait of the earliest recorded critic of the play, Samuel Pepys, byJohn Hayls. Oil on canvas, 1666. The earliest known critic of the play was diarist Samuel Pepys, who wrote in 1662: "it is a play of itself the worst that I ever heard in my

life."[58] Poet John Dryden wrote 10 years later in praise of the play and its comic character Mercutio: "Shakespear show'd the best of his skill in

his Mercutio, and he said himself, that he was forc'd to kill him in the third Act, to prevent being killed by him."[58]Criticism of the play in the 18th century was less sparse, but no less divided. Publisher Nicholas Rowewas the first critic to ponder the theme of the play, which he saw as the just punishment of the two feuding families. In mid-century, writer Charles Gildon and

philosopher Lord Kames argued that the play was a failure in that it did not follow the classical rules of drama: the tragedy must occur because of some character flaw, not an accident of fate. Writer and critic Samuel Johnson, however, considered it one of Shakespeare's "most pleasing" plays.[59]

In the later part of the 18th and through the 19th century, criticism centred on debates over the moral message of the play. Actor and playwright David Garrick's 1748 adaptation excluded Rosaline: Romeo abandoning her for Juliet was seen as fickle and reckless. Critics such as Charles Dibdin argued that

Rosaline had been purposely included in the play to show how reckless the hero was, and that this was the reason for his tragic end. Others argued that Friar Laurence might be Shakespeare's spokesman in his warnings against undue haste. With the advent of the 20th century, these moral arguments were disputed by critics such as Richard Green Moulton: he argued that accident, and not some character flaw, led to the lovers' deaths.[60]

Dramatic structure

In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare employs several dramatic techniques that have garnered praise from critics; most notably the abrupt shifts from comedy to tragedy (an example is the punning exchange between Benvolio and

Mercutio just before Tybalt arrives). Before Mercutio's death in Act three, the play is largely a comedy.[61] After his accidental demise, the play suddenly becomes serious and takes on a tragic tone. When Romeo is banished, rather than executed, and Friar Laurence offers Juliet a plan to reunite her with Romeo, the audience can still hope that all will end well. They are in a

"breathless state of suspense" by the opening of the last scene in the tomb: If Romeo is delayed long enough for the Friar to arrive, he and Juliet may yet be saved.[62] These shifts from hope to despair, reprieve, and new hope, serve to

emphasise the tragedy when the final hope fails and both the lovers die at the end.[63]

Shakespeare also uses sub-plots to offer a clearer view of the actions of the main characters. For example, when the play begins, Romeo is in love with Rosaline, who has refused all of his advances. Romeo's infatuation with her stands in obvious contrast to his later love for Juliet. This provides a

comparison through which the audience can see the seriousness of Romeo and Juliet's love and marriage. Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo. The formal language she uses around Paris, as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse, show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo. Beyond this, the sub-plot of the

Montague–Capulet feud overarches the whole play, providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end.[63]

Language

Shakespeare uses a variety of poetic forms throughout the play. He begins with a 14-line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet, spoken by a Chorus. Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse, and much of it in strict iambic pentameter, with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays.[64] In choosing forms, Shakespeare matches the poetry to the character who uses it. Friar Laurence, for example,

uses sermon and sententiae forms, and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matchescolloquial speech.[64] Each of these forms is also

moulded and matched to the emotion of the scene the character occupies. For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form. Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline. This sonnet form is used by Lady Capulet to describe Count Paris to Juliet as a handsome man.[65] When Romeo and Juliet meet, the poetic form changes from the Petrarchan (which was becoming archaic in Shakespeare's day) to a then more contemporary sonnet form, using "pilgrims" and "saints" as metaphors.[66]Finally, when the two meet on the balcony, Romeo attempts to use the sonnet form to pledge his love, but Juliet breaks it by saying "Dost thou love me?"[67] By doing this, she searches for true expression, rather than a poetic exaggeration of their love.[68] Juliet uses monosyllabic words with Romeo, but uses formal language with

Paris.[69] Other forms in the play include an epithalamium by Juliet, a rhapsodyin Mercutio's Queen Mab speech, and an elegy by

Paris.[70] Shakespeare saves his prose style most often for the common people in the play, though at times he uses it for other characters, such as

Mercutio.[71] Humour, also, is important: scholar Molly Mahood identifies at least 175 puns and wordplays in the text.[72] Many of these jokes are sexual in nature, especially those involving Mercutio and the Nurse.[73]

Psychoanalytic criticism

Early psychoanalytic critics saw the problem of Romeo and Juliet in terms of Romeo's impulsiveness, deriving from "ill-controlled, partially disguised aggression", which leads both to Mercutio's death and to the double

suicide.[74] Romeo and Juliet is not considered to be exceedingly

psychologically complex, and sympathetic psychoanalytic readings of the play make the tragic male experience equivalent with sicknesses.[75] Norman Holland, writing in 1966, considers Romeo's dream[76] as a realistic "wish fulfilling fantasy both in terms of Romeo's adult world and his hypothetical childhood at stages oral, phallic and oedipal" – while acknowledging that a dramatic character is not a human being with mental processes separate from those of the author.[77] Critics such as Julia Kristeva focus on the hatred between the families, arguing that this hatred is the cause of Romeo and Juliet's passion for each other. That hatred manifests itself directly in the lovers' language: Juliet, for example, speaks of "my only love sprung from my only hate"[78] and often expresses her passion through an anticipation of Romeo's death.[79] This leads on to speculation as to the playwright's

psychology, in particular to a consideration of Shakespeare's grief for the death of his son, Hamnet.[80]

Feminist criticism

Feminist literary critics argue that the blame for the family feud lies in Verona's patriarchal society. For Coppélia Kahn, for example, the strict, masculine code of violence imposed on Romeo is the main force driving the

tragedy to its end. When Tybalt kills Mercutio, Romeo shifts into this violent mode, regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate".[81] In this view, the younger males "become men" by engaging in violence on behalf of their fathers, or in the case of the servants, their masters. The feud is also linked to male virility, as the numerous jokes about maidenheads aptly

demonstrate.[82] Juliet also submits to a female code of docility by allowing others, such as the Friar, to solve her problems for her. Other critics, such as Dympna Callaghan, look at the play's feminism from a historicist angle, stressing that when the play was written the feudal order was being challenged by increasingly centralised government and the advent of

capitalism. At the same time, emerging Puritan ideas about marriage were less concerned with the "evils of female sexuality" than those of earlier eras, and more sympathetic towards love-matches: when Juliet dodges her father's attempt to force her to marry a man she has no feeling for, she is challenging the patriarchal order in a way that would not have been possible at an earlier time.[83]

Queer theory

The playbill from a 1753 production at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane starring David Garrick

A number of critics have found the character of Mercutio to have

unacknowledged homoerotic desire for Romeo.[84] Jonathan Goldberg examined the sexuality of Mercutio and Romeo utilising "queer theory" inQueering the Renaissance, comparing their friendship with sexual love.

Mercutio, in friendly conversation, mentions Romeo's phallus, suggesting traces of homoeroticism.[85] An example is his joking wish "To raise a spirit in his mistress' circle ... letting it there stand / Till she had laid it and conjured it down."[86][87] Romeo's homoeroticism can also be found in his attitude to Rosaline, a woman who is distant and unavailable and brings no hope of offspring. As Benvolio argues, she is best replaced by someone who will

reciprocate. Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who, like Romeo, is having trouble creating offspring and who may be seen as being a homosexual. Goldberg believes that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an

acceptable way. In this view, when Juliet says "...that which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet",[88] she may be raising the question of whether there is any difference between the beauty of a man and the beauty of a woman.[89]

The Balcony Scene

In October 2014, Lois Leveen noted in The Atlantic that the original play does not contain a balcony.[90]The word, balcone, did not exist in the English language until two years after Shakespeare's death.[91]The balcony was later

used in Thomas Otway's 1679 play, The History and Fall of Caius Marius, which had borrowed much of its story from Romeo and Juliet but placed the two lovers in a balcony reciting a speech similar to that between Romeo and Juliet. During the 18th century, David Garrick chose to use a balcony in his adaptation and revival of Romeo and Juliet and modern adaptations have continued this tradition.[90]

Legacy

罗密欧与朱丽叶与哈姆雷特是莎士比亚最表现戏剧之一。(93年]许多适应性使其成为他的一个最持久和著名的故事。(93年]即使是在莎士比亚的一生是非常受欢迎的。Romeo and Juliet ranks with Hamlet as one of Shakespeare's most performed plays.[93] Its many adaptations have made it one of his most enduring and famous stories.[93] Even in Shakespeare's lifetime it was extremely popular. 这是在莎士比亚的最受欢迎的戏剧在他有生之年,连同哈姆雷特是他的一个最常见的表演戏剧。今天,被视为标题字符原型年轻的恋人。 It was amongShakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers.

罗密欧与朱丽叶是一个威廉·莎士比亚写的悲剧关于两个年轻在他职业生涯的早期不幸的恋人的死亡最终调和他们不和的家庭。 这是在莎士比亚的最受欢迎的戏剧在他有生之年, 连同哈姆雷特是他的一个最常见的表演戏剧。 今天,被视为标题字符原型年轻的恋人。 罗密欧与朱…

罗密欧与朱丽叶是一个威廉·莎士比亚写的悲剧关于两个年轻在他职业生涯的早期不幸的恋人的死亡最终调和他们不和的家庭。 这是在莎士比亚的最受欢迎的戏剧在他有生之年, 连同哈姆雷特是他的一个最常见的表演戏剧。 今天,被视为标题字符原型年轻的恋人。 罗密欧与朱…

罗密欧与朱丽叶是一个威廉·莎士比亚写的悲剧关于两个年轻在他职业生涯的早期不幸的恋人的死亡最终调和他们不和的家庭。 这是在莎士比亚的最受欢迎的戏剧在他有生之年, 连同哈姆雷特是他的一个最常见的表演戏剧。 今天,被视为标题字符原型年轻的恋人。 罗密欧与朱…

本文由第一文库网(www.wenku1.com)首发,转载请保留网址和出处!
免费下载文档:
字典词典慰问座谈会主持词慰问座谈会主持词【范文精选】慰问座谈会主持词【专家解析】四德个人事迹材料四德个人事迹材料【范文精选】四德个人事迹材料【专家解析】个人为官不为整改措施个人为官不为整改措施【范文精选】个人为官不为整改措施【专家解析】