Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when the results of that research are controversial
3. 反方向论述： 科学是个双刃剑，比如克隆研究，虽然能解决器官移植，但是如果应用到人身上则会引起伦理道德问题，原子弹的研究 和核扩散。最后总结，我们需要考虑科学研究可能带来的负面影响，在投资方面限制或避免负面影响，引导起正面的发展。
The speaker claims that it is always a good investment for government to spend money on research, even when the results of that research are controversial. In my view, we should take advantage of it positive aspect and limit or avoid its negative impact. I believe that the research investment should be determined by their owning demand. That is to say that government should focus on current emergency research, and take account of other potential research as well, which may have important impact on future human development or existence.
H0General speaking, money spent on research is a good investment. Human has been being benefit from various science technology fruition and being enjoying them. Due to industrial research, the discovery and the invention of car, train, and planes were generated and enhance our communication distance and conveniences. The appearance of computer abysmal activates our human being and society development. Computer has been penetrated into almost every aspect of our life and exerts enormous function to help us solve much problem and promote our efficiency. Biology field development also proves the power of research. We can easily
recombine plant gene structure composition to improve plant product quality or elevate product yield. By exploring the unknown filed of nature, research can make the world a better place to live in, improve human health and life quality, and at the same time, is very profitable. As long as research is beneficial, it is obviously a good investment.
However, research is a two-edged sword. While research is exerting it positive function, its negative influence also is generated sometimes and might be harmful to human or encumber our development. We ever went to rapture for the birth of clone sheep Doli. Because the clone technology proved that celluar totipotency is also true in animal beside from plant and may be applied to solve bottleneck of scarcity of our human organic. Nevertheless, the technology
should be banned when its purpose is to clone human and create a new copy, in that it conflicts with our human morality and may lead our society into chaos. Atomic technology generates our desirable clean energy, and ameliorate our energy crisis in some extent as well. However, it inevitable brings horrible radical pollution problem which is lethal to our human health.
Moreover, if the technology spread everywhere without any restriction, it may become to our human extinction seed, because it might be used by some terrorism and extremism and would cause severe disaster to human. As a result, we should limit or avoid research negative impact and enable it to serve us better.
There is no denying fact that research result is unpredictable. Before unearthing research result influence, we should not neglect some research which may have important impact on future human development or existence. When it comes to virus research, we always worry about its infection to human. But our government should support these researches in some institute. 2003’s SARS virus is the best example to assist the opinion. If we can have some basic
acknowledge about SARS in advance, we might not be passively in that condition. Investing on research to solve the emergence problems can be perceptible in a relative short time, compared with basic and potential research. However, accord analysis above, we also play emphasis on these basic and potential researches.
In sum, I partly agree with the speaker’s assertion. Investing on research is a good investment. However, we should take enough account of its possible negative influence which should be limited or avoid. In order to satisfy our present our demand and our future development,
government should not only focus on current emergency research, but also take care of some basic and potential research.
There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目_____. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude as follows: in the first place, ___原因一_______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____.
People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter. Some people hold the idea that ___观点二_______. In their point of view, on the one hand， ___原因一_______. On the other hand, ____原因二_____. Therefore, there is no doubt that ___观点二______.
As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一或二______. It is not only because ________, but also because _________. The more _______, the more ________. joozone.com
Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______. And secondly ___优点二_____.
Just As a popular saying goes,
To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of __讨论议题____ into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___.
Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)__作文题目_______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem.
As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing to success of the solving problem is ___途径二_____.
Above all, to solve the problem of ___作文题目______, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say, ____方法_____.
It is well know to us that the proverb:
A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great of importance to practice the proverb ____谚语_____.
With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____.
The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying, the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job.
As is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the
table(graph/picture/pie/chart), ___作文题目的议题_____ has been on rise/ decrease
from______ in _______ to ______ in _____. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that ________.
There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one
hand, ________. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that ________. In addition, ________ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.
As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.
Month, Date, year
I am extremely pleased to hear from you./ to see your advertisement for the position in .... And I would like to write a letter to tell you that.../ I am confident that I am suitable for the kind of the job you are advertising.
.../ I feel I am competent to meet the requirements you have listed. On the one hand, .... On the other hand, .... I am enclosing my resume for your kind consideration and reference.
I shall be much obliged if you will offer me a precious opportunity to an interview. I will greatly appreciate a response from you at your earliest convenience/ I am looking forward to your replies at your earliest convenience.
Best regards for your health and success.
X X X
01 The Language of Music
A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm—two entirely different movements.
Singers and instruments have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the
hammers that hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear.
This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with fanatical but selfless authority.
Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.
02 Schooling and Education
It is commonly believed in United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.
Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one’s entire life.
Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that there not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.
03 The Definition of “Price”
Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of services, including labor, professional, transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the “system” of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else.
If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define “price”, many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words that price is the money values of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding
of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total “package” being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price. 04 Electricity
The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.
Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for million of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.
All living cell send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of record; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small – often so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cell are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.
The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can seed a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it live. ( An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.) As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel’s body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to length of its body.
05 The Beginning of Drama
There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The on most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world-even the seasonal changes-as unpredictable, and they sought through various means to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.
Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used, Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the
Another theory traces the theater's origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this vies tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.
Television-----the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth-is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies.
Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.
The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques.
Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer.
07 Andrew Carnegie p
Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and , in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.
Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly
that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves.
Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthrophic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.
Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.
Women make a great contribution to the progress of modern society. But there are still some people who don’t agree with it.
There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper based on the following outline.
1. Role of women in modern society
2. Prejudices and discrimination against women
3. My comment
You should write about 200 words within 40 minutes.
Women play an important part in modern society. Now many women are going into
professions, such as medicine, law and engineering. They comprise a large part of the workers in offices and factories. Many jobs they are engaged in are in line with their special capabilities of their sex. In addition, some of are working up to important positions which used to be held mainly by men. There are even some businesses which are run completely by women. It is
obvious that women are making an outstanding contribution to the progress of modern society. There are, however, still some people who assert that men are superior to women in many ways. In the first place, many jobs men do can hardly be done by women, who are physically not strong enough. They believe that women are the weaker sex – both physically and
emotionally. Thus, women are naturally suited, much more so than men, to the performance of domestic duties. According to them, a woman’s place is within the protective environment of the home. Secondly, most of the world-famous scientists and statesmen are found to be males. Finally, the whole society seems to have always been dominated by men only. In their opinion,
men should enjoy more rights than do women.
Personally, I’m firmly standing on the side of those women right defenders. Since both
men and women are equally important in human activities, they should be on an equal footing. (242 words)
2.Directions: In this part, you are to write an essay of about 200 words within 40 minutes. Study the following table care fully and your composition must be based on the information given in the table. You should quote as few figures as possible.
Outline: 1. Changes in people’s daily expanses in the past five years
2. Possible reasons for the changes
3. My own conclusion
Year Item1997 1998199920002001
In the past five years, there have been great changes in people’s daily expenses in XX city. According to the figures given in the table, the amount of money spent on food decreased
gradually, accounting for 35 per cent in 2001. However, there was a rapid increase in clothing expenses, which made up 15% in 2001. In addition, the table shows an upward tendency in recreation expenses. The same was the case with other expenses.
What caused these remarkable changes? In my opinion, there are at least three good
reasons. To begin with, with the rapid development of agriculture in China, the output of grain, fruit, vegetables and milk has sharply increased, which contributes to the decline in their prices. Secondly, the family incomes of people both in the city and in the country have greatly risen so that people now can afford expensive clothing and some of them even want to dress in the
latest fashion. Finally, as the living conditions improve, the demand for a variety of recreations is growing steadily, too.
In short, with the incomes continuing to rise, people will no longer resign themselves to living a dull, monotonous life. They are eager to make their life interesting and exciting. Therefore, I am sure that people will spend more money on clothing and recreations. (219 words)
3．Directions: Migrant workers (外地民工) have made a great contribution to the prosperity of cities. In this part, you are to write within 40 minutes a composition of 200 words about “The Role of Migrant Workers”. You can agree and/or disagree, completely or partially to above statement. But no matter which position you take, you should supporting reasons. As is known to all, migrant workers have made a great contribution to the prosperity of cities. They are an indispensable part of our work force. Most of them work on construction sites. There is no doubt that without migrant workers many of construction projects would have to be held up for lack of manpower. In addition, a large number of migrant workers are a
beneficial factor, which enhances the consumption of food and daily items. This in turn helps to develop food industry and service trades in cites. All these are positive aspects of migrant workers in cities.
However, as a popular saying goes, “Everything has two sides”. The same is the case with
migrant workers. Firstly, most of them are not well educated and professionally trained. Some of them have had very little schooling. As you know. Illiterate people, who are usually ignorant of the law, tend to make trouble, thus endangering social order. Secondly, most of the migrant workers swarm into big cities just to make money. Being illiterate or unskilled, some of them would stop at nothing to get what they are ambitious for. Therefore, they are a potential threat to the peace and stability of society.
In my opinion, in the appraisal of migrant workers, it is one-sided to affirm everything or to negate everything. We should appreciate the great contribution made by them, and at the same time pay enough attention to the problems caused by them. (244 words)