For the second day in a row, a Chinese commercial airliner has been forced to alter its flight plan after receiving a false threat, prompting nervous chatter online as well as complaints about a lack of information from authorities.
Shenzhen Airlines flight ZH9706 out of Xiangyang, a city in central China's Hubei province, was bound for the southern city of Shenzhen on Thursday evening when the airline received a threatening phone call, according to the state-run Xinhua news agency.
The plane landed in the Hubei capital of Wuhan, roughly 200 miles southeast of Xiangyang, where it was subjected to an inspection, according to Xinhua. No dangerous items were found either on the aircraft or in the passengers' belongings, the news agency said.
The incident occurred a day after CA981, a New York-bound Air China flight out of Beijing, was forced to turn around after nearly four hours in the air and fly back to the Chinese capital after receiving a threat. In that case, too, police searched the aircraft and passengers' luggage and found nothing suspicious, according to state media.
In the Air China case, information about the threat was relayed to the airline by authorities in the U.S., the state-run English-language China Daily reported, citing a spokesman for the Beijing airport police. 据英文《中国日报》(China Daily)援引北京机场警方发言人的话报道，国航CA981航班受到威胁的消息来
Chinese airlines, like airlines in most large countries, have received fake threats in the past. Nor is there any evidence at this point to suggest to the incidents are linked. But the appearance of such similar headlines on consecutive days nevertheless has sent nervous shivers through the country's social networks.
'You can expect this sort of situation to happen more and more in the future,' wrote one user of Sina Corp.'s Weibo microblogging service posting under the handle Words of Autumn Rain. 'A lot of people are dissatisfied with society and feel the need to vent.'
While some fixated on terrorism, others were more concerned with transparency.
Air China won praise from many for its candor after it announced the decision to bring CA981 back to Beijing on its official feed on Sina Weibo. But a paucity of new information about the threats since then has created a vacuum online that China's social media users have filled with a mixture of complaint and conspiracy theory.
'Why don't they publicize the nature of the threat?' asked one microblogger after the second flight was forced to land early. 'Instead they just let everyone's imaginations run away with them.' 在深航ZH9706被迫提前降落后，一位新浪微博用户写道:为什么不公开威胁内容呢,就让大家胡思乱想,
Parents splurge on freshmen
'Electronic products are a must' for new generation of college students
Duan Wei's parents have spared no expense to make sure she is prepared for college. 段位(音译)的父母不惜代价地让女儿做好大学生活的准备。
"Electronic products are a must nowadays, especially laptops," said the 18-year-old, whose family has spent at least 30,000 yuan ($4,730) on a Macbook, digital camera and other high-tech gadgets to help Duan with her studies.
"It's not about luxury, it's about good quality," insisted the freshman, who will begin the fall semester at Northeast Forestry University in Harbin.
A college freshman, accompanied by her parents and relatives, takes a plush toy and an iPhone with her for her first semester at Liaoning University in Shenyang, Northeast China's Liaoning province, on Friday. 一名大一新生在家长和亲友的陪同下，到位于辽宁省沈阳市的辽宁大学报道。她一手抱着一个毛绒玩具，
Bill Clinton will tell struggling Americans nostalgic for his presidency that Barack Obama is still the man to rebuild the middle class, while Mitt Romney would hand ruinous tax cuts to the rich.
In a speech closing the second night of the Democratic convention, the former president will warn voters that Mr Romney would repeat the economic policies that "got us in trouble in the first place".
"President Obama has a plan to rebuild America from the ground up," he said in a campaign video billed by Obama aides as a preview of his remarks. "It only works if there is a strong middle class. That's what happened when I was president. We need to keep going with his plan." Mr Clinton is expected to contrast Mr Obama's priorities of education and training with Mr Romney's pledge to cut income taxes and reverse the regulation of the financial sector since the 2008 crisis.
Mr Obama has worked to repair the damage to their relationship caused by his defeat of the former president's wife, Hillary, in 2008's bitter party primary, by seeking his counsel over rounds of golf.
In June, Mr Clinton appeared to say that income tax cuts introduced by President George W. Bush, which are due to expire at the end of the year, should be extended for all to prevent an economic slump. Mr
Obama opposes extending the tax cuts for high earners. Mr Clinton later insisted they were in agreement.
Jeffrey Lord, a historian and former aide to Ronald Reagan, said the only precedent for Mr Clinton's role
in recent memory was the speech given by Mr Reagan as a "private citizen" to the 1992 Republican
convention, as his successor, George H.W. Bush, struggled to defend his presidency against Mr Clinton.
"It was for exactly the same reason," Mr Lord told the reporters.
"Obama needs Clinton just as Bush needed Reagan. But even Reagan couldn't save Bush – and I'm not
sure Clinton can save Obama."
The people of the Brussels will have to mind their manners from now on, with the city authorities announcing new fines of up to 250 euros (?200) for insults traded on the streets.
"Any form of insult is from now on punishable, whether it be racist, homophobic or otherwise," a spokesman quoted Socialist mayor Freddy Thielemans as saying.
Brussels, home to the EU and many top international institutions, is known for its family-friendly and cultivated lifestyle but the mayor wants to crack down on the everyday unpleasantness found in any big city.
To do so, officials came to an agreement with judicial authorities to impose fines of between 75 and 250 euros for insults, petty theft and rough jostling where no physical harm is caused.
The spokesman for the mayor said the courts up to now had been too busy to take up such cases and as a result many police "had little incentive to take any action over such incidents".
The issue was highlighted in a recent film by Belgian director Sofie Peeters who recorded in secret the everyday insults and exchanges she ran into on the streets of the city.
International Business and Cross-cultural Communication
The increase in international business and in foreign investment has created a need for executives with knowledge of foreign languages and skills in cross-cultural communication. Americans, however, have not been well trained in either area and, consequently, have not enjoyed the same level of success in negotiation in an international arena as have their foreign counterparts.
Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching an agreement. It involves persuasion and compromise, but in order to participate in either one, the negotiators must understand the ways in which people are persuaded and how compromise is reached within the culture of the negotiation.
In many international business negotiations abroad, Americans are perceived as wealthy and impersonal. It often appears to the foreign negotiator that the American represents a large multi-million-dollar corporation that can afford to pay the price without bargaining further. The American negotiator’s role becomes that of an impersonal purveyor of information and cash.
In studies of American negotiators abroad, several traits have been identified that may serve to confirm this stereotypical perception, while undermining the negotiator’s position. Two traits in particular that cause cross-cultural misunderstanding are directness and impatience on the part of the American negotiator. Furthermore, American negotiators often insist on realizing short-term goals. Foreign negotiators, on the other hand, may value the relationship established between negotiators and may be willing to invest time in it for long-term benefits. In order to solidify the relationship, they may opt for indirect interactions without regard for the time involved in getting to know the other negotiator.
One of the most important social developments that helped to make possible a shift in thinking about the role of public education was the effect of the baby boom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depression conditions of the 1930's, the United States experienced a declining birth rate --- every thousand women aged fifteen to forty-four gave birth to about 118 live children in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. Birth rates rose to 102 per thousand in 1946,106.2 in 1950, and 118 in 1955. Although economics was probably the most important determinant, it is not the only explanation for the baby boom. The increased value placed on the idea of the family also helps to explain this rise in birth rates. The baby boomers began streaming into the first grade by the mid 1940's and became a flood by 1950. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the food. The wartime economy meant that few new schools were built between 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boom times that followed, large numbers of teachers left their profession for better-paying jobs elsewhere in the economy.
Therefore in the 1950’s and 1960’s, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the “ custodial rhetoric” of the 1930’s and early 1940’s no longer made sense that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer
be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The system no longer had much interest in offering nontraditional, new, and extra services to older youths.
27. Scientific Theories
In science, a theory is a reasonable explanation of observed events that are related. A theory often involves an imaginary model that helps scientists picture the way an observed event could be produced. A good example of this is found in the kinetic molecular theory, in which gases are pictured as being made up of many small particles that are in constant motion.
A useful theory, in addition to explaining past observations, helps to predict events that have not as yet been observed. After a theory has been publicized, scientists design experiments to test the theory. If observations confirm the scientist’s predictions, the theory is supported. If observations do not confirm
the predictions, the scientists must search further. There may be a fault in the experiment, or the theory may have to be revised or rejected.
Science involves imagination and creative thinking as well as collecting information and performing experiments. Facts by themselves are not science. As the mathematician Jules Henri Poincare said, “Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks, but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.”
Most scientists start an investigation by finding out what other scientists have learned about a particular problem. After known facts have been gathered, the scientist comes to the part of the investigation that requires considerable imagination. Possible solutions to the problem are formulated. These possible solutions are called hypotheses.
In a way, any hypothesis is a leap into the unknown. It extends the scientist’s thinking beyond the known facts. The scientist plans experiments, performs calculations, and makes observations to test hypotheses. Without hypothesis, further investigation lacks purpose and direction. When hypotheses are confirmed, they are incorporated into theories.
By the mid-nineteenth century, the term “icebox” had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the
growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns, and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War( 1861-1865),as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880,half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new household convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern refrigerator, had been invented.
Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary. The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803, and ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the right track. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.
Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge. For many thousands of years it was the one field of awareness about which humans had anything more than the vaguest of insights. It is impossible to know today just what our Stone Age ancestors knew about plants, but form what we can observe of pre-industrial societies that still exist a detailed learning of plants and their properties must be extremely ancient. This is logical. Plants are the basis of the food pyramid for all living things even for other plants. They have always been enormously important to the welfare of people not only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter, and a great many other purposes. Tribes living today in the jungles of the Amazon recognize literally hundreds of plants and know many properties of each. To them, botany, as such, has no name and is probably not even recognized as a special branch of “ knowledge” at all.
Unfortunately, the more industrialized we become the farther away we move from direct contact with plants, and the less distinct our knowledge of botany grows. Yet everyone comes unconsciously on an amazing amount of botanical knowledge, and few people will fail to recognize a rose, an apple, or an orchid. When our Neolithic ancestors, living in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago, discovered that certain grasses could be harvested and their seeds planted for richer yields the next season the first great step in a new association of plants and humans was taken. Grains were discovered and from them flowed the marvel of agriculture: cultivated crops. From then on, humans would increasingly take their living from the controlled production of a few plants, rather than getting a little here and a little there from many varieties that grew wild- and the accumulated knowledge of tens of thousands of years of experience and intimacy with plants in the wild would begin to fade away.
British Columbia is the third largest Canadian provinces, both in area and population. It is nearly 1.5 times as large as Texas, and extends 800 miles(1,280km) north from the United States border. It includes Canada’s entire west
coast and the islands just off the coast.
Most of British Columbia is mountainous, with long rugged ranges running north and south. Even the coastal islands are the remains of a mountain range that existed thousands of years ago. During the last Ice Age, this range was scoured by glaciers until most of it was beneath the sea. Its peaks now show as islands scattered along the coast.
The southwestern coastal region has a humid mild marine climate. Sea winds that blow inland from the west are warmed by a current of warm water that flows through the Pacific Ocean. As a result, winter temperatures average above freezing and summers are mild. These warm western winds also carry moisture from the ocean.
Inland from the coast, the winds from the Pacific meet the mountain barriers of the coastal ranges and the Rocky Mountains. As they rise to cross the mountains, the winds are cooled, and their moisture begins to fall as rain. On some of the western slopes almost 200 inches (500cm) of rain fall each year.
More than half of British Columbia is heavily forested. On mountain slopes that receive plentiful rainfall, huge Douglas firs rise in towering columns. These forest giants often grow to be as much as 300 feet(90m) tall, with diameters up to 10 feet(3m). More lumber is produced from these trees than from any other kind of tree in North America. Hemlock, red cedar, and balsam fir are among the other trees found in British Columbia.
The theory of plate tectonics describes the motions of the lithosphere, the comparatively rigid outer layer of the Earth that includes all the crust and part of the underlying mantle. The lithosphere(n.[地]岩石圈)is divided into a few dozen plates of various sizes and shapes, in
general the plates are in motion with respect to one another. A mid-ocean ridge is a boundary between plates where new lithospheric material is injected from below. As the plates diverge from a mid-ocean ridge they slide on a more yielding layer at the base of the lithosphere.
Since the size of the Earth is essentially constant, new lithosphere can be created at the mid-ocean ridges only if an equal amount of lithospheric material is consumed elsewhere. The site of this destruction is another kind of plate boundary: a subduction zone. There one plate dives under the edge of another and is reincorporated into the mantle. Both kinds of plate boundary are associated with fault systems, earthquakes and volcanism, but the kinds of geologic activity observed at the two boundaries are quite different.
The idea of sea-floor spreading actually preceded the theory of plate tectonics. In its original version, in the early 1960’s, it described the creation and destruction of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithospheric plates. The hypothesis was substantiated soon afterward by the discovery that periodic reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust. As magma rises under the mid-ocean ridge, ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field. When the magma cools and solidifies, the direction and the polarity of the field are preserved in the magnetized volcanic rock. Reversals of the field give rise to a series of magnetic stripes running parallel to the axis of the rift. The oceanic crust thus serves as a magnetic tape recording of the history of the geomagnetic field that can be dated independently; the width of the stripes indicates the rate of the sea-floor spreading.
当板块从中海脊脱离时，它们滑向在岩石圈基部较易变形的地层上。因为地球的大小本质上是不 变的，只有同等数量的岩石圈物质在其它地方被吞没，新的岩石圈才能生成。销毁旧岩石 圈的地方形成另外一种板块边界:一块潜没的区域。在这里，一块板块潜没到另一板块的边缘之下并结合入地幔之中。